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Uses

Toxic parts

The plant contains calcium oxylate crystals. These cause an extremely unpleasant sensation similar to needles being stuck into the mouth and tongue if they are eaten, but they are easily neutralized by thoroughly drying or cooking the plant or by steeping it in water[12].

Edible uses

Notes

Tuber - cooked and used as a vegetable[2][1]. A mild flavour, the root contains about 25% starch[3]. A farina can be extracted from the root[2]. Roots can be harvested at any time of the year, though they are best when the plant is dormant[K]. At one time, the tubers of this plant were commonly harvested and used for food, but they are very rarely used nowadays[268, K]. The root must be thoroughly dried or cooked before being eaten, see the notes above on toxicity. Leaves - must be well cooked[1]. Available from late winter. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Leaves

Root

Material uses

Starch from the root has been used as a laundry starch for stiffening clothes[4][5][6]. Its use is said to be very harsh on the skin, producing sores and blisters on the hands of the laundresses who have to use it[5][6], though another report says that the powdered root makes a good and innocent cosmetic that can be used to remove freckles[4].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Cuckoo pint has been little used in herbal medicine and is generally not recommended for internal use[7]. The shape of the flowering spadix has a distinct sexual symbolism and the plant did have a reputation as an aphrodisiac, though there is no evidence to support this[7]. The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, strongly purgative and vermifuge[4][8][9][10]. It should be harvested in the autumn or before the leaves are produced in the spring[4]. It can be stored fresh in a cellar in sand for up to a year or can be dried for later use[4]. The plant should be used with caution[8], see notes above on toxicity. The bruised fresh plant has been applied externally in the treatment of rheumatic pain[7]. A liquid from the boiled bark (of the stem?[K]) has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea[11].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a greenhouse or cold frame as soon as it is ripe[13]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 6 months at 15°c[13]. Stored seed should be sown in the spring in a greenhouse and can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking a year or more. A period of cold stratification might help to speed up the process. Sow the seed thinly, and allow the seedlings to grow on without disturbance for their first year, giving occasional liquid feeds to ensure that they do not become mineral deficient. When the plants are dormant in the autumn, divide up the small corms, planting 2 - 3 in each pot, and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for a further year, planting out when dormant in the autumn. Division of the corms in summer after flowering[14]. Larger corms can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up the smaller corms and grow them on for a year in a cold frame before planting them out.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Arum maculatum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a humus rich soil and abundant water in the growing season[15][16]. Prefers a shady damp calcareous soil[16][17]. Succeeds in sun or shade[18]. Plants are very shade tolerant[19] and grow well in woodland conditions[15]. The inflorescence has the remarkable ability to heat itself above the ambient air temperature to such a degree that it is quite noticeable to the touch[4]. Temperature rises of 11°c have been recorded[20]. At the same time, the flowers emit a foul and urinous smell in order to attract midges for pollination[20]. The smell disappears once the flower has been pollinated[20]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[21].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Arum maculatum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Arum maculatum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Arum maculatum
Genus
Arum
Family
Araceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    0.45 x
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Illustration Arum maculatum0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Arum maculatum0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Illustration Arum maculatum0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Illustration Arum maculatum0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    "image:Illustration Arum maculatum0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (32202/01/01)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (32202/01/01)
    4. ? 4.004.014.024.034.044.054.064.074.084.094.104.114.124.134.144.154.164.174.184.194.204.214.224.23 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (32202/01/01)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (32202/01/01)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (32202/01/01)
    8. ? 8.008.018.028.038.048.058.068.078.088.098.108.11 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.5 Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-35666-3 (32202/01/01)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (32202/01/01)
    12. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (32202/01/01)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (32202/01/01)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
    15. ? 15.015.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (32202/01/01)
    17. ? Brown. Shade Plants for Garden and Woodland. ()
    18. ? Phillips. R. and Rix. M. Bulbs Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30253-1 (32202/01/01)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)
    20. ? 20.020.120.2 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (32202/01/01)
    21. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (32202/01/01)


    "image:Illustration Arum maculatum0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Arum maculatum"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyAraceae +
    Belongs to genusArum +
    Has binomial nameArum maculatum +
    Has common nameCuckoo Pint +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partLeaves + and Root +
    Has edible useCooked +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has hardiness zone6 +
    Has imageIllustration Arum maculatum0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partRoots +
    Has material useClothes stiffening +
    Has mature height0.45 +
    Has medicinal partAll +, Roots +, Unknown part + and Bark +
    Has medicinal useAntirheumatic +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Homeopathy +, Purgative + and Antidiarrheic +
    Has primary imageIllustration Arum maculatum0.jpg +
    Has search namearum maculatum + and cuckoo pint +
    Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
    Has seed requiring stratificationNo +
    Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameArum maculatum +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates air pollutionNo +
    Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Tolerates windNo +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum +, Arum maculatum + and Arum maculatum +