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Uses

Toxic parts

Of greatest concern is possible contamination of damaged or spoiled seeds with the teratogenic, carcinogenic aflatoxins. Two principal toxins, aflatoxins B, and G, and their less toxic dihydro derivatives, aflatoxins B2 and G2 are formed by the aflatoxin producing moulds (Aspergillus flavus et al). Prevention of mould growth is the mainstay, there being no satisfactory way to remove the toxins from feed and foods (however, peanut oils are free of aflatoxins because of alkaline processing)[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw, cooked or ground into a powder. Peanuts are a staple food in many tropical zones and are widely exported to temperate area of the world. The seeds have a delicious nutty flavour and can be eaten on their own either raw or roasted[K]. The seeds are commonly ground up and used as peanut butter in sandwiches etc[1]. They can also be cooked in a variety of dishes and are also ground into a powder when they can be used with cereals to greatly improve the protein content of breads, cakes etc[K]. The seed is very rich in protein and oil, it is also a good source of minerals and vitamins, especially the B complex[2]. A nutritional analysis is available[3].

A non-drying edible oil is obtained from the seed[2]. This is one of the most commonly used edible oils is the world. It is similar in composition to olive oil and is often used in cooking, making margarines, salad oils etc[2]. The oilseed cake is said to be a good source of arginine and glutamic acid, used in treating mental deficiencies[1]. The roasted seed makes an excellent coffee substitute[4][1]. Young pods may be consumed as a vegetable[1].

Young leaves and tips are suitable as a cooked green vegetable[1]. Javanese use the tips for lablab, and germinating seeds to make toge[1].

Unknown part

Leaves

Seedpod

Material uses

The seeds yield a non-drying oil that has a wide range of uses including the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, soaps, cold creams, pomades and lubricants, paints, emulsions for insect control, and fuel for diesel engines[5][1]. Peanut hulls are used for furfural, fuel, as a filler for fertilizers or for sweeping compounds[1].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The oil from the seed is aperient, demulcent, emollient and pectoral[3]. The seed is used mainly as a nutritive food[5]. The seeds have been used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac and decoagulant[1]. Peanuts play a small role in various folk pharmacopoeias. In China the nuts are considered demulcent, pectoral, and peptic; the oil aperient and emollient, taken internally in milk for treating gonorrhoea, externally for treating rheumatism[1]. In Zimbabwe the peanut is used in folk remedies for plantar warts. Haemostatic and vasoconstrictor activity are reported. The alcoholic extract is said to affect isolated smooth muscles and frog hearts like acetylcholine. The alcoholic lipoid fraction of the seed is said to prevent haemophiliac tendencies and for the treatment of some blood disorders (mucorrhagia and arthritic haemorrhages) in haemophilia[1].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and sow the seed in mid spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots of fairly rich soil and grow them on fast, planting them out after the last expected frosts and giving them some protection (such as a cloche) until they have settled down and are growing well.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Arachis hypogaea. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a light humus-rich well-drained soil in a warm sunny sheltered position, though it will tolerate heavier soils[2][1]. Plants prefer hot dry conditions when the crop is ripening[2]. Peanuts are quite tolerant of acid soils, and aluminium, requiring a minimum of lime for acceptable yields[1]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.7[1].

Plants are not frost-hardy and most cultivars require too long a growing season to make them a viable crop in Britain. Some cultivars, however (listed below), have a shorter growing season and are worthy of more research in this country[K]. The peanut is widely cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its edible seed and oil contained in the seed, there are many named varieties[2]. It grows best between latitudes 40° south and 40° north[2]. Yields average about 1 tonne of unshelled nuts per hectare, about 80% of this weight is edible seeds (erect forms) and 60 - 75% (running forms)[2]. Crops can be grown at further distances from the equator but yields are likely to be poor[2]. There are three main groups of cultivars:- 'Virginia' has large seeds, 'Valencia' has four seeds per pod and 'Spanish' has the smallest seeds[2]. There are running and erect forms in each group[2]. The erect forms mature more quickly and are therefore more likely to succeed in colder areas[2]. 'Early Spanish' matures in 105 days and has cropped reliably as far north as Canada[6]. 'Spanish' matures in 110 days and crops in Canada if grown in a light sandy soil with southern exposure[6]. Plants are, in general, self-pollinating, though occasional outcrossing by bees occurs[1].

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[2]. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Arachis hypogaea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Arachis hypogaea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Arachis hypogaea
Genus
Arachis
Family
Leguminosae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Peanut 9417.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Peanut 9417.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Peanut 9417.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Peanut 9417.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.101.111.121.131.141.151.161.171.18 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
    2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.122.132.14 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)

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