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Toxic parts

All members of this genus contain furocoumarins, which increase skin sensitivity to sunlight and may cause dermatitis[1].

Edible uses


Leaves - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5][6][7]. A liquorice-like flavour[8], they can be used as a flavouring in mixed salads[K]. They are also used to sweeten tart fruits[K].

Stalks and young shoots - cooked or raw[2][6]. The stalks should be peeled[9], they can be used like celery[8]. They can also be used to sweeten tart fruits[7] and to make jam[10]. They are often crystallised in sugar and used as sweets and cake decorations[10]. The stems are best harvested in the spring[10]. An essential oil is obtained from the root and seeds, it is used as a food flavouring[11][12][13][8]. Root - cooked[2]. Seed - used as a flavouring in liqueurs such as Chartreuse[10].

A tea can be made from the leaves, seed or roots[8].

Unknown part


Material uses

An essential oil from the root and seeds is used in perfumery, medicinally and as a food flavouring[3][11][12][13]. The oil from the seeds has a musk-like aroma and is often used to flavour liqueurs[14]. The dried root contains 0.35% essential oil, the seed about 1.3%[15]. Yields of the essential oil vary according to location, plants growing at higher altitudes have higher yields with a better aroma[15].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Angelica has a long folk-history of use as a medicinal herb, in particular for the treatment of digestive disorders and problems with blood circulation[3][16]. The root is the most active medicinally, it should be harvested in the autumn of its first year of growth, sliced longitudinally if necessary and dried quickly[3]. If well stored, the root retains its medicinal virtues for many years[3]. The leaves and seeds can also be used[3]. The leaves are harvested and dried in late spring before the plant comes into flower[10].

The plant is antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, tonic[3][17][4][18][11][19]. An infusion is used to ease flatulence, indigestion, chronic bronchitis and typhus[10]. It stimulates blood flow to the peripheral parts of the body and so is of value in treating poor circulation - it is considered a specific treatment for Buerger's disease, a condition that narrows the arteries of the hands and feet[16]. Angelica is contra-indicated for people with a tendency towards diabetes since its use can increase sugar levels in the urine[3]. This plant should not be prescribed for pregnant women[1], nor should the juice be allowed to come into contact with the eyes[10].

An essential oil from the seeds is sometimes used as a rub to relieve rheumatic conditions[10].


Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe since the seed only has a short viability[20]. Seed can also be sown in the spring, though germination rates will be lower. It requires light for germination[20]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in the spring. The seed can also be sow in situ as soon as it is ripe.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Angelica archangelica. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Requires a deep moist fertile soil in dappled shade or full sun[7][20]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.3.

A very hardy plant, tolerating severe frosts without damage[3]. Although by nature biennial, the plants are reliably perennial if they are prevented from setting seed[20]. Angelica is occasionally cultivated in the herb garden, mainly for its culinary uses[11]. The plants have a pervading aromatic odour[3]. The growing plant is almost untroubled by pests and diseases[3]. It attracts bees and hoverflies to the garden, helping to create a natural balance of insect pests and predators[21].

When well-sited, the plant will often self-sow - sometimes to the point of nuisance[14].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Angelica archangelica. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Angelica archangelica.




None listed.


None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Angelica archangelica
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Flower Colour
    Flower Type

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    "image:Archangelica_officinalis_a2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Archangelica_officinalis_a2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    1. ? Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    2. ? Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    3. ? Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    4. ? Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press ISBN 0-89815-041-8 ()
    6. ? Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (1878-00-00)
    7. ? Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn (1980-00-00)
    8. ? Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    10. ? Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    11. ? Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    12. ? Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    13. ? Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
    14. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    15. ? Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    16. ? Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    20. ? Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    21. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
    22. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

    "image:Archangelica_officinalis_a2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Angelica archangelica"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyUmbelliferae +
    Belongs to genusAngelica +
    Has binomial nameAngelica archangelica +
    Has common nameAngelica +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Leaves +, Root +, Seed + and Stem +
    Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Insects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageArchangelica officinalis a2.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typeBiennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useEssential +
    Has mature height1.5 +
    Has mature width0.75 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Carminative +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Stimulant +, Stomachic + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageArchangelica_officinalis_a2.jpg +
    Has search nameangelica archangelica + and angelica +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameAngelica archangelica +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica +, Angelica archangelica + and Angelica archangelica +