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Botanical description

In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3?6 m (in some cases, up to 9 m), arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals (which have smaller leaves with three or five leaflets). First and second year shoots usually have numerous short curved very sharp prickles that are often erroneously called thorns. Flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals. Each flower is about 2?3 cm in diameter with five white or pale pink petals. In botanical terminology, the fruit is not a berry, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets.

Uses

Edible uses

Leaves

Tea

Root

Shoots

Material uses

Fruit

Dye

Stem

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Pioneer

Plants are spread by seed deposited in the droppings of birds and mammals. They often spring up in burnt-over, logged or abandoned land and make an excellent pioneer species, creating the right conditions for woodland trees to move in. The trees will often grow in the middle of a clump of blackberries, the prickly stems protecting them from rabbits.

Hedge

R. fruticosus naturally forms a dense thicket of thorny woody canes making it ideal for edible hedging.

Forage

Birds

The fruit is eaten by birds.

Shelter

Birds

Some species of birds will happily nest within a bramble thicket.

Propagation

Tip layering in summer. Plant out in autumn. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[15].

Seed

Requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year.

Rooted cuttings

Late summer in a frame[15].


Cultivation

Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil[16][17][15]. Succeeds in acid and calcareous soils[18]. Tolerates poor soils[19]. Established plants are drought resistant[20]. Succeeds in sun or semi-shade[16][17][15], though it fruits less well in the shade[19]. Plants will also fruit when grown in fairly deep shade or against a north facing wall, though the fruit will ripen later[21]. Plants tolerate quite severe exposure[18].

Hardy to at least -18°c[19]. R. fruticosus is an aggregate species made up of several hundred slightly differing species. The reason for this is that most seed is produced by a non-sexual method (Apomixis) and is therefore genetically identical to the parent plant. On occasions when sexual production of seed takes place the offspring will all be slightly different from the parent plant and will then usually reproduce as a new species by means of apomixy. Modern treatment of this aggregate usually does not use the name R. fruticosus because of the confusion over which species it should apply to, the type species of the aggregate should be called R. ulmifolius[22]. The following members of the aggregate have been highly recommended for their fruit[22]. R. badius. R. cyclophorus. R. gratus. R. nemoralis. R. oxyanchus. R. pyramidalis. R. separinus. R. winteri. The following members are said to be nearly as good. R. balfourianus. R. broensis. R. carpinifolius. R. foliosus. R. fuscoviridis. R. infestus. R. insericatus newbouldianus. R. koehleri. R. largificus. R. londinensis. R. ludensis. R. macrophyllus. R. obscurus. R. pseudo-bifrons. R. rhombifolius. R. riddelsdellii. R. scaber. R. thyrsiflorus. R. vallisparsus. R. vestitus. Plants form dense thickets and this makes excellent cover for birds[18]. They regenerate freely after being cut back[18]. This species is also a good plant for bees and butterflies[23]. This species has biennial stems, it produces a number of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit in their second year and then die[15].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[15].

Crops

Fruit

Harvest

R. fruticosus fruits abundantly in Summer and Autumn. The fruits soften and turn from green through red to deep as they ripen. When fully ripe they can be picked from the plant with almost no effort, and may fall to the ground if the plant is knocked. The fruits ripen successively, providing a continual harvest for a long period, but once ripened berries very quickly over-ripen and lose their sweetness.

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Rubus fruticosus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Rubus fruticosus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Rubus fruticosus
Genus
Rubus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
3 x 3
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
white
Flower Type

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"image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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"image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.5 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  5. ? 5.05.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (32202/01/01)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (32202/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (32202/01/01)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.2 Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (32202/01/01)
  20. ? Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
  21. ? Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (32202/01/01)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Watson. W. C. R. Handbook of the Rubi of Great Britain and Ireland. ()
  23. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  24. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)


"image:Rubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Rubus fruticosus"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsYes +
Article requires cleanupNo +
Belongs to familyRosaceae +
Belongs to genusRubus +
Can be grown from cutting typeHard wood +
Functions asPioneer + and Hedge +
Has binomial nameRubus fruticosus +
Has common nameBlackberry +
Has cropFruit +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +, Leaves +, Root + and Shoots +
Has edible useRaw +, Fresh +, Cooked +, Tea +, Jam +, Jelly +, Syrup + and Preserve +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Insects +
Has flowers of colourwhite +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone6 +
Has imageRubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partFruit + and Stem +
Has material useDye + and Fibre +
Has mature height3 +
Has mature width3 +
Has medicinal partRoots + and Leaves +
Has medicinal useAstringent +, Depurative +, Diuretic +, Tonic +, Vulnerary + and Dental care +
Has primary imageRubus fruticosus-fruit.jpeg +
Has search namerubus fruticosus + and blackberry +
Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
Has seed requiring stratificationYes +
Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameRubus fruticosus +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is grown fromSeed +, Cutting + and Layering +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Provides forage forBirds +
Provides shelter forBirds +
Tolerates air pollutionNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus +, Rubus fruticosus + and Rubus fruticosus +