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Uses

Toxic parts

None known

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - eaten raw or used in confections, cakes, ice cream etc[1][2][3][4][5]. A delicious flavour. The seed can also be ground into a meal and used as a flavouring in sweet and savoury dishes[5]. The unripe fruits are pickled in vinegar[5]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[6][7][8][5], it should not be stored for any length of time since it tends to go rancid quickly[7][9]. The oil has a pleasant flavour and is used in salads or for cooking[5]. The sap is tapped in spring and used to make a sugar[10]. The finely ground shells are used in the stuffing of 'agnolotti' pasta[5]. They have also been used as adulterant of spices[11]. The dried green husks contain 2.5 - 5% ascorbic acid (vitamin C) - this can be extracted and used as a vitamin supplement[11]. The leaves are used as a tea[5].

Unknown part

Material uses

A yellow dye is obtained from the green husks[6][7][12][10]. It is green[13]. The green nuts (is this the same as the green husks?) and the leaves are also used[13]. The rind of unripe fruits is a good source of tannin[14]. A brown dye is obtained from the leaves and mature husks[6][7][15][10][16]. It does not require a mordant and turns black if prepared in an iron pot[16]. The dye is often used as a colouring and tonic for dark hair[17]. The leaves and the husks can be dried for later use[18]. A golden-brown dye is obtained from the catkins in early summer. It does not require a mordant[16]. A drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is used in soap making, paints, etc. It is not very stable and quickly goes rancid[7][19][4][20]. The nuts can be used as a wood polish. Simply crack open the shell and rub the kernel into the wood to release the oils. Wipe off with a clean cloth[4, 6, K]. The dried fruit rind is used to paint doors, window frames etc[21] (it probably protects the wood due to its tannin content). The shells may be used as anti-skid agents for tyres, blasting grit, and in the preparation of activated carbon[11]. The leaves contain juglone, this has been shown to have pesticidal and herbicidal properties[22]. The crushed leaves are an insect repellent[20][23]. Juglone is also secreted from the roots of the tree, it has an inhibitory effect on the growth of many other plants[24]. Bark of the tree and the fruit rind are dried and used as a tooth cleaner. They can also be used fresh[21][14]. Wood - heavy, hard, durable, close grained, seasons and polishes well. A very valuable timber tree, it is used for furniture making, veneer etc[25][6][7][20][23][14].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The walnut tree has a long history of medicinal use, being used in folk medicine to treat a wide range of complaints[11]. The leaves are alterative, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, astringent and depurative[26][22]. They are used internally the treatment of constipation, chronic coughs, asthma, diarrhoea, dyspepsia etc[26]. The leaves are also used to treat skin ailments and purify the blood[26][22]. They are considered to be specific in the treatment of strumous sores[27]. Male inflorescences are made into a broth and used in the treatment of coughs and vertigo[22]. The rind is anodyne and astringent[28]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and anaemia[17]. The seeds are antilithic, diuretic and stimulant[22]. They are used internally in the treatment of low back pain, frequent urination, weakness of both legs, chronic cough, asthma, constipation due to dryness or anaemia and stones in the urinary tract[29]. Externally, they are made into a paste and applied as a poultice to areas of dermatitis and eczema[29]. The oil from the seed is anthelmintic[22]. It is also used in the treatment of menstrual problems and dry skin conditions[17]. The cotyledons are used in the treatment of cancer[22]. Walnut has a long history of folk use in the treatment of cancer, some extracts from the plant have shown anticancer activity[22]. The bark and root bark are anthelmintic, astringent and detergent[22][27]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Oversensitive to ideas and influences' and 'The link-breaker'[30].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame[31]. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two. The seed can also be stored in cool moist conditions (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring but it may then require a period of cold stratification before it will germinate[32][31][33]. Named varieties are propagated by budding.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Juglans regia. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a deep well-drained loam[34] and a sunny position sheltered from strong winds. Prefers a slightly alkaline heavy loam but succeeds in most soils[25][35]. The walnut tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 31 to 147cm, an annual temperature in the range of 7.0 to 21.1°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2[11]. The dormant plant is very cold tolerant, tolerating temperatures down to about -27°C without serious damage, but the young spring growth is rather tender and can be damaged by late frosts[11]. Some late-leafing cultivars have been developed, these often avoid damage from spring frosts and can produce a better quality timber tree. The walnut tree is frequently cultivated for its edible seed in temperate zones of the world, there are many named varieties[35][5]. Newer cultivars begin producing nuts in 5 - 6 years; by 7 - 8 years, they produce about 2.5 tons of nuts per hectare[11]. Orchards on relatively poor, unirrigated mountain soil report 1.5 - 2.25 tonnes per hectare, orchards in well cultivated valleys, 6.5 - 7.5 tonnes per hectare[11]. According to the Wealth of India, a fully grown individual can yield about 185 kg, but 37 kg is more likely[11]. Trees grow well in most areas of Britain but they often fail to fully ripen their fruits or their wood in our cooler and damper climate[35][36], they prefer a more continental climate. There are some very fine trees in Cornwall[37]. Walnuts can produce large healthy trees in many parts of Britain, but seedling trees often do not fruit reliably. Some European varieties have been developed that succeed in colder areas[36]. Seedling trees are said to take from 6 to 15 years to come into fruit from seed[36], but these cultivars usually start cropping within 5 years. Plants produce a deep taproot and they are intolerant of root disturbance. Seedlings should be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and given some protection for their first winter or two since they are somewhat tender when young. Flower initiation depends upon suitable conditions in the previous summer. The flowers and young growths can be destroyed by even short periods down to -2°c[35], but fortunately plants are usually late coming into leaf. Some cultivars are self-fertile, though it is generally best to grow at least two different cultivars to assist in cross-pollination. Any pruning should only be carried out in late summer to early autumn or when the plant is fully dormant otherwise wounds will bleed profusely and this will severely weaken the tree. Plants produce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree[38][39][40]. The roots also produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.)[36]. Trees have a dense canopy which tends to reduce plant growth below them[39]. All in all, not the best of companion trees, it is also suggested that the trees do not like growing together in clumps[41]. Trees are said to inhibit the growth of potatoes and tomatoes[38]. Hybridizes with J. nigra[42]. This species is notably susceptible to honey fungus[36]. The bruised leaves have a pleasant sweet though resinous smell[43].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Juglans regia. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Juglans regia.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Juglans regia
Genus
Juglans
Family
Juglandaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-01-01)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-01-01)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (1975-01-01)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.8 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-01-01)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-01-01)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-01-01)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    9. ? 9.09.1 Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. ISBN 0802707699 (1984-01-01)
    11. ? 11.0011.0111.0211.0311.0411.0511.0611.0711.0811.0911.1011.11 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-01-01)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-01-01)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Niebuhr. A. D. Herbs of Greece. Herb Society of America. (1970-01-01)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-01-01)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Boullemier. L. The Checklist of Species, Hybrids and Cultivars of the Genus Fuschia. Blandford Press ISBN 0-7137-1781-5 (1985-01-01)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-01-01)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-01-01)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
    19. ? 19.019.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-01-01)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-01-01)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-01-01)
    22. ? 22.0022.0122.0222.0322.0422.0522.0622.0722.0822.0922.10 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-01-01)
    23. ? 23.023.123.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-01-01)
    24. ? 24.024.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-01-01)
    25. ? 25.025.125.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-01-01)
    26. ? 26.026.126.226.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-01-01)
    27. ? 27.027.127.2 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-01-01)
    28. ? 28.028.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
    29. ? 29.029.129.2 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-01-01)
    30. ? 30.030.1 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-01-01)
    31. ? 31.031.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-01-01)
    32. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-01-01)
    33. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-01-01)
    34. ? 34.034.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-01-01)
    35. ? 35.035.135.235.3 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-01-01)
    36. ? 36.036.136.236.336.436.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-01-01)
    37. ? Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
    38. ? 38.038.1 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-01-01)
    39. ? 39.039.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-01-01)
    40. ? McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-01-01)
    41. ? Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (1878-01-01)
    42. ? Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-01-01)
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    Cite error: <ref> tag with name "PFAFimport-144" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

    Facts about "Juglans regia"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Belongs to familyJuglandaceae +
    Belongs to genusJuglans +
    Has common nameWalnut +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Sap + and Seeds +
    Has edible useOil +, Unknown use +, Sweetener + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Wind +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone5 +
    Has imageKoeh-081.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDye +, Herbicide +, Oil +, Paint +, Polish +, Repellent +, Tannin +, Dental care + and Wood +
    Has mature height20 +
    Has mature width20 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAlterative +, Anodyne +, Antiinflammatory +, Astringent +, Bach +, Blood purifier +, Cancer +, Depurative +, Detergent +, Diuretic +, Laxative +, Lithontripic +, Pectoral +, Skin +, Stimulant + and Vermifuge +
    Has primary imageKoeh-081.jpg +
    Has search namejuglans regia + and x +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy nameJuglans regia +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +