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Uses

Toxic parts

The plant is possibly poisonous[1][2]. Male flowers have potentially allergenic pollen[3]. The leaves are toxic to domestic animals[4]. Gardeners who fell the tree may suffer rashes[4]. The odour of the foliage is intensely disagreeable and can cause headache and nausea, rhinitis and conjunctivitis[4].The pollen can cause hay fever[4].

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - cooked[5]. Used as an emergency food in times of scarcity, they have an offensive odour[6][7][8]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Leaves

Material uses

A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves[1].

The leaves contain 12% tannin, quercetin, as well as isoquercetin, and the alkaloid linuthine[9][4]. The leaves and wood are high in cellulose and are used in paper-making[1][10]. The crushed leaves and flowers are insect-repellent[11]. The plant parts, when steeped in water, are said to yield an insecticidal solution[9][4]. An aqueous extract of the leaves contains a substance that is toxic to other tree seedlings[12]. When plants are put into marshy areas they drain the soil and thereby remove mosquito breeding sites[13]. The plants have extensive root systems and sucker freely, they can be used in soil-stabilization programmes[14]. Since the plant is tolerant of soil pollution it can also be used in land reclamation schemes on old mine tips etc[3]. Plants can be grown as a tall hedge[11].

Wood - fairly hard, heavy, difficult to split, not durable, coarse grained. Though little used, except in poorer countries, the wood is suitable for cabinetry, cellulose manufacture, furniture, lumber, pulp, and woodwork. It is difficult to split but easy to work and polish. The wood is also used locally for charcoal and firewood[15][16][14][8][4]. Yields of 20 cubic metres per hectare is possible for this light wood[4].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The tree of heaven is not often used in Western herbal medicine, though it is more popular in the Orient. Various parts of the plant are used, though the bark is the part most commonly used - however, it contains a glycoside that has not been fully researched and so should be used with caution[1].

The root and stem bark are antispasmodic, astringent, bitter, cardiac depressant, diuretic, emetic, febrifuge, rubefacient and vermifuge[15][17][18][19][8][9][20]. The vermifuge properties do not act on round worms or earthworms[4]. A nauseatingly bitter herb, it is used internally to treat malaria and fevers, it also slows the heart rate and relaxes spasms[20]. It needs to be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner since the bark readily causes vomiting[20]. In China, the bark is a popular remedy for dysentery and other complaints of the bowels[15]. In one clinical trial, 81 out of 82 patients were cured of dysentery when they were given this herb[13]. A tincture of the root-bark has been used successfully in the treatment of cardiac palpitations, asthma and epilepsy[15]. Tree-of-heaven is a folk remedy for asthma, cancer, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, dysuria, ejaculation (premature), epilepsy, eruption, fever, gonorrhoea, haematochezia, leucorrhoea, malaria, metrorrhagia, sores, spasms, spermatorrhoea, stomachic, tumours of the breast (China), and wet dreams[4] The bark is harvested in the spring and dried for later use[1]. The leaves, bark of the trunk, and roots are put into a wash to treat parasitic ulcers, itch, and eruptions[4]. In Korea, the root bark is used in the treatment of coughs, gastric and intestinal upsets[4]. The stembark is emmenagogue[9]. The leaves are anthelmintic, astringent and deobstruent[9]. The fruit is used in the treatment of bloody stools and dysentery[9][4]. They have also been used to treat ophthalmic diseases[4]. Extracts from the plant are bactericidal[9]. The tree is used in homeopathic remedies for cancer[4].

A resin extracted from the roots and leaves is a revulsive or vesicant[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Soil builder


Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown outdoors as soon as it is ripe[21]. If you only have a small quantity of seed it will probably be better to sow it in a cold frame. The germination can be poor[22], averaging about 56%[23], though one kilo of seed will normally produce in the region of 6,500 usable plants[4]. The seed germinates best if given a short cold stratification of 8 weeks[22][24]. The seed is not usually produced in Britain[22]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, keep them in a cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring[K].

Root cuttings in December[24].

Suckers, planted out in late winter.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Ailanthus altissima. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very tough and easily grown tree, succeeding under most conditions, the Tree of Heaven is resistant to most diseases and is also reported to be tolerant of alkalinity, drought, frost, heat, high pH, hydrogen fluoride, low pH, pollution, SO2, poor, dry or wet soils, heavily polluted soils and industrial pollution[3][4]. The plant prefers a light moist soil and a sheltered position[25][26]. Prefers a position in full sun or partial shade[20].

The tree is estimated to tolerate an annual precipitation of 30 to 250cm (tolerating a dry season up to 8 months), an annual average temperature of 10° to 20°C, and a pH of 5.5 to 8.0. Growing on the smallest of city plots and rubbish heaps, this species obviously can tolerate a wide array of soils, from acid to alkaline, sand to light clay, well-drained to swampy, poor to rich. It is said to do poorly on chalky soils or compact clay[4]. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c[3]. A very ornamental tree, it has a somewhat tropical appearance and is fast growing when young[25][1][11], though it is rather short-lived[27]. The trees send up suckers freely and soon form dense thickets[1][3][27]. The plant has become a noxious weed in parts of Australia and is rather weed-like in many other countries[20][4]. The roots are rather aggressive and can cause damage to drainage systems[28]. The plants thrive even when growing in very polluted cities[29][27] and so have been used as street trees and as shade-trees in parks[30], they do not do well in the north of Britain, however[23]. Male flowers are malodorous and have potentially allergenic pollen[22][3]. The crushed leaves are also malodorous[28]. The large leaves have glandular teeth near their base and these release a pungent aroma when pressed[31]. The disagreeable odour of the plant may cause some people to feel sleepy[4]. This tree is occasionally cultivated for its wood[14]. This is brittle however, and branches are very liable to break off in the wind[3]. Trees coppice readily[3]. The leaves were once used as a food for silkworms[6], but were found to be unsuitable[1]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[32][3].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required[4].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Ailanthus altissima. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Ailanthus altissima.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Ailanthus altissima
Genus
Ailanthus
Family
Simaroubaceae
Imported References
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Götterbaum (Ailanthus altissima).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.71.81.9 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  4. ? 4.004.014.024.034.044.054.064.074.084.094.104.114.124.134.144.154.164.174.184.194.204.214.224.23 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.79.8 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
  19. ? 19.019.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  21. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.222.3 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  24. ? 24.024.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  26. ? Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. (1987-00-00)
  27. ? 27.027.127.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  28. ? 28.028.1 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  29. ? 29.029.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  30. ? Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
  31. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  32. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)

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"image:Götterbaum (Ailanthus altissima).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Ailanthus altissima"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familySimaroubaceae +
Belongs to genusAilanthus +
Functions asHedge +, Soil builder + and Earth stabiliser +
Has common nameTree Of Heaven +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partLeaves +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Bee +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone7 +
Has imageGötterbaum (Ailanthus altissima).jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Herbicide +, Insecticide +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has mature width15 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAnthelmintic +, Antibacterial +, Antispasmodic +, Astringent +, Bitter +, Cardiac +, Deobstruent +, Diuretic +, Emetic +, Emmenagogue +, Febrifuge + and Rubefacient +
Has primary imageGötterbaum (Ailanthus altissima).jpg +
Has search nameailanthus altissima + and x +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameAilanthus altissima +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +