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Uses

Toxic parts

Seed

Saponins low toxicity
The seed is rich in saponins[12][13][14]. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[15].
The given value was not understood.

Edible uses

Material uses

Bark

Dye

Seed

Bark, Seed

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Horse chestnut is an astringent, anti-inflammatory herb that helps to tone the vein walls which, when slack or distended, may become varicose, haemorrhoidal or otherwise problematic[16]. The plant also reduces fluid retention by increasing the permeability of the capillaries and allowing the re-absorption of excess fluid back into the circulatory system[16]. This plant is potentially toxic if ingested and should not be used internally without professional supervision[16].

Alterative, analgesic, haemostatic and vulnerary[17][18]. The bark is anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, narcotic, tonic and vasoconstrictive[6][2][19]. It is harvested in the spring and dried for later use[6]. The plant is taken in small doses internally for the treatment of a wide range of venous diseases, including hardening of the arteries, varicose veins, phlebitis, leg ulcers, haemorrhoids and frostbite[20][16]. It is also made into a lotion or gel for external application[16]. A tea made from the bark is used in the treatment of malaria and dysentery, externally in the treatment of lupus and skin ulcers[6][19]. A tea made from the leaves is tonic and is used in the treatment of fevers and whooping cough[19][9][16]. The pericarp is peripherally vasoconstrictive[2]. The seeds are decongestant, expectorant and tonic[2][13]. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia and haemorrhoids[6]. They are said to be narcotic and that 10 grains of the nut are equal to 3 grains of opium[21]. An oil extracted from the seeds has been used externally as a treatment for rheumatism[16]. A compound of the powdered roots is analgesic and has been used to treat chest pains[22]. The buds are used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Failure to learn by experience', 'Lack of observation in the lessons of life' and hence 'The need of repetition'[23].

The flowers are used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Persistent unwanted thoughts' and 'Mental arguments and conversations'[23].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed

Best sown outdoors or in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[11][24]. The seed germinates almost immediately and must be given protection from severe weather[25]. The seed has a very limited viability and must not be allowed to dry out. Stored seed should be soaked for 24 hours prior to sowing and even after this may still not be viable[24][26]. It is best to sow the seed with its 'scar' downwards[25]. If sowing the seed in a cold frame, pot up the seedlings in early spring and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer.


Cultivation

Prefers a deep loamy well-drained soil but is not too fussy tolerating poorer drier soils[11][27]. Tolerates exposed positions and atmospheric pollution[27].

A very ornamental and fast-growing tree[28][6], it succeeds in most areas of Britain but grows best in eastern and south-eastern England[27]. Trees are very hardy when dormant, but the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. The flowers have a delicate honey-like perfume[29]. Trees are tolerant of drastic cutting back and can be severely lopped[27]. They are prone to suddenly losing old heavy branches[30]. The tree comes into bearing within 20 years from seed[30].

Most members of this genus transplant easily, even when fairly large[11].

Crops

Seeds

Harvest

The seed of A. hippocastanumis quite large, about 3cm in diameter, and is easily harvested from smaller trees.

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Aesculus hippocastanum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Aesculus hippocastanum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Aesculus hippocastanum
Genus
Aesculus
Family
Hippocastanaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
30 x 15
Fertility
?
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.6 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (32202/01/01)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.7 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (32202/01/01)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  12. ? Altmann. H. Poisonous Plants and Animals. Chatto and Windus ISBN 0-7011-2526-8 (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
  14. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (32202/01/01)
  15. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAF
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.516.616.7 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  18. ? 18.018.118.2 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (32202/01/01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  21. ? 21.021.121.2 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (32202/01/01)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (32202/01/01)
  23. ? 23.023.123.2 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (32202/01/01)
  24. ? 24.024.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (32202/01/01)
  25. ? 25.025.1 ? The Plantsman. Vol. 4. 1982 - 1983. Royal Horticultural Society (32202/01/01)
  26. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (32202/01/01)
  27. ? 27.027.127.227.327.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  28. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  29. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (32202/01/01)
  30. ? 30.030.1 Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  31. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)

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"image:Aesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Aesculus hippocastanum"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupNo +
Belongs to familyHippocastanaceae +
Belongs to genusAesculus +
Has binomial nameAesculus hippocastanum +
Has common nameHorse Chestnut +
Has cropSeeds +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partSeed +
Has edible useCoffee +, Cooked + and Flour +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageAesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partBark +, Seed + and Wood +
Has material useDye +, Soap +, Starch +, Tannin +, Charcoal + and Fine carpentry +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width15 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAlterative +, Analgesic +, Antiinflammatory +, Astringent +, Bach +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Febrifuge +, Haemostatic +, Narcotic +, Tonic +, Vasoconstrictor + and Vulnerary +
Has primary imageAesculus hippocastanum RJB2.jpg +
Has search nameaesculus hippocastanum + and horse chestnut +
Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
Has seed requiring stratificationNo +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameAesculus hippocastanum +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is grown fromSeed +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates air pollutionNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
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