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Uses

Toxic parts

The fresh root can be poisonous[1]. When using the plant medicinally, the isolated essential oil should not be used[2]. The essential oil in the roots of some populations of this plant contains the compound asarone. This has tranquillising and antibiotic activity, but is also potentially toxic and carcinogenic[3][4]. It seems that these compounds are found in the triploid form of the species (found in Asia) whilst the diploid form (found in N. America and Siberia) is free of the compounds[3][4]. However, the root (but not the isolated essential oil) has been used in India for thousands of years without reports of cancer which suggests that using the whole herb is completely safe, though more research is needed[5].

Edible uses

Notes

The rhizome is candied and made into a sweetmeat[6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. It can be peeled and washed to remove the bitterness and then eaten raw like a fruit[13][14]. It makes a palatable vegetable when roasted[15] and can also be used as a flavouring[16]. Rich in starch, the root contains about 1% of an essential oil that is used as a food flavouring[17][8][18]. The root also contains a bitter glycoside[14]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

The dried and powdered rhizome has a spicy flavour and is used as a substitute for ginger, cinnamon and nutmeg[7][9][19][20][12]. A pinch of the powdered rhizome is used as a flovouring in tea[21]. The young and tender inflorescence is often eaten by children for its sweetness[7]. Young leaves - cooked[9]. The fresh leaves contain 0.078% oxalic acid[22]. The leaves can be used to flavour custards in the same way as vanilla pods[23].

The inner portion of young stems is eaten raw[10]. It makes a very palatable salad[12].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

The leaves are used in basket making or woven into mats[24]. They have also been used as a thatch for roofs[7].

An essential oil from the rhizome is used in perfumery and as a food flavouring[17][8][18]. The oil is contained mainly in the outer skin of the root[25], it has a fragrance reminiscent of patchouli oil[15]. The fresh roots yield about 1.5 - 3.5% essential oil, dried roots about 0.8%[7][22]. Some plants from Japan have yielded 5% essential oil[7]. The essential oil is also an insect repellent and insecticide[3][21]. It is effective against houseflies[22]. When added to rice being stored in granaries it has significantly reduced loss caused by insect damage because the oil in the root has sterilized the male rice weevils[23]. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used in perfumery and for making aromatic vinegars[25].

The leaves and the root have a refreshing scent of cinnamon[25]. All parts of plant can be dried and used to repel insects or to scent linen cupboards[26][27][16]. They can also be burnt as an incense[27], whilst the whole plant was formerly used as a strewing herb[7][27][11][4]. The growing plant is said to repel mosquitoes[28][29].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Sweet flag has a very long history of medicinal use in many herbal traditions. It is widely employed in modern herbal medicine as an aromatic stimulant and mild tonic[7]. In Ayurveda it is highly valued as a rejuvenator for the brain and nervous system and as a remedy for digestive disorders[5]. However, some care should be taken in its use since some forms of the plant might be carcinogenic - see the notes above on toxicity for more information.

The root is anodyne, aphrodisiac, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hallucinogenic, hypotensive, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, mildly tonic and vermifuge[7][1][30][31][32][2][33][22][34]. It is used internally in the treatment of digestive complaints, bronchitis, sinusitis etc[4]. It is said to have wonderfully tonic powers of stimulating and normalizing the appetite. In small doses it reduces stomach acidity whilst larger doses increase stomach secretions[5] and it is, therefore, recommended in the treatment of anorexia nervosa[23]. However if the dose is too large it will cause nausea and vomiting[K]. Sweet flag is also used externally to treat skin eruptions, rheumatic pains and neuralgia[4]. An infusion of the root can bring about an abortion[33] whilst chewing the root alleviates toothache[33]. It is a folk remedy for arthritis, cancer, convulsions, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, epilepsy etc. Chewing the root is said to kill the taste for tobacco[3]. Roots 2 - 3 years old are used since older roots tend to become tough and hollow[7]. They are harvested in late autumn or early spring and are dried for later use[7]. The dry root loses 70% of its weight, but has an improved smell and taste[23]. It does, however, deteriorate if stored for too long[23]. Caution is advised on the use of this root, especially in the form of the distilled essential oil, since large doses can cause mild hallucinations[15]. See also the notes above on toxicity.

A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots[30]. It is used in the treatment of flatulence, dyspepsia, anorexia and disorders of the gall bladder[30].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stand the pot in about 3cm of water. Pot up young seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle, keep them wet by standing the pots in shallow water and overwinter for the first year in a greenhouse or cold frame. Seed is rarely produced in Britain[7][35]. Division in spring just before growth starts[17]. Very easy, it can be carried out successfully at any time in the growing season and can be planted direct into its permanent positions[K].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Acorus calamus. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers growing in shallow water or in a very moist loamy soil[36]. Requires a sunny position[36]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 to 7.5.

Plants are hardy to about -25°c[37]. The sweet flag has a long history of use as a medicinal and culinary plant. It has been cultivated for this purpose but was more commonly allowed to naturalize and was then harvested from the wild.

The plant seldom flowers or sets seed in Britain and never does so unless it is growing in water[7]. It can spread quite freely at the roots however and soon becomes established.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Acorus calamus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Acorus calamus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Acorus calamus
Genus
Acorus
Family
Araceae
Imported References
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
aquatic
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    1 x 1 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:AcorusCalamus.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:AcorusCalamus.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    7. ? 7.007.017.027.037.047.057.067.077.087.097.107.117.127.137.147.15 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-090-x (1975-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70864-8 (1979-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    19. ? 19.019.1 Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press ISBN 0-12-136450-x (1975-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.221.3 Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-527-6 (2002-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.122.222.322.422.522.6 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.123.223.323.423.523.623.7 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    24. ? 24.024.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
    25. ? 25.025.125.225.3 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    26. ? 26.026.1 Ceres. Free for All. Thorsons Publishers ISBN 0-7225-0445-4 (1977-00-00)
    27. ? 27.027.127.227.3 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    28. ? 28.028.1 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    29. ? 29.029.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    30. ? 30.030.130.230.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    31. ? 31.031.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    32. ? 32.032.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
    33. ? 33.033.133.233.3 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    34. ? 34.034.1 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
    35. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
    36. ? 36.036.136.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    37. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)

    Cite error: <ref> tag with name "PFAFimport-100" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

    "image:AcorusCalamus.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Acorus calamus"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyAraceae +
    Belongs to genusAcorus +
    Has binomial nameAcorus calamus +
    Has common nameSweet Flag +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Leaves +, Root + and Stem +
    Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageAcorusCalamus.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useBasketry +, Incense +, Insecticide +, Repellent +, Strewing +, Thatching + and Weaving +
    Has mature height1 +
    Has mature width1 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAbortifacient +, Anodyne +, Aphrodisiac +, Aromatic +, Carminative +, Diaphoretic +, Emmenagogue +, Febrifuge +, Hallucinogenic +, Homeopathy +, Odontalgic +, Sedative +, Stimulant +, Stomachic +, Tonic + and Vermifuge +
    Has primary imageAcorusCalamus.jpg +
    Has search nameacorus calamus + and sweet flag +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameAcorus calamus +
    Has water requirementsaquatic +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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