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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

The sap contains quite a large proportion of sugar. This can be used as a refreshing drink, or be concentrated into a syrup by boiling off the water[1][2][3][4][5]. The syrup is used as a sweetener on many foods. The sap can be harvested in late winter or early spring[[6], the flow is best on a warm sunny day after a frost[7]. Trees on southern slopes in sandy soils give the best yields. It is best to make a hole about 7cm deep and about 1.3 metres above the ground[8]. Yields of 40 - 100 litres per tree can be obtained[6]. The best sap production comes from cold-winter areas with continental climates. The sap contains 2 - 6% sugar, thus about 32 litres are required to make a litre of maple syrup[9].

Self-sown seedlings, gathered in early spring, are eaten fresh or dried for later use[7]. Seeds - cooked. The wings are removed and the seeds boiled then eaten hot[10][11][12][7]. The seed is about 6mm long and is produced in small clusters[13].

Inner bark - cooked. It is dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[11][14].

Inner bark

Leaves

Unknown part

Material uses

The leaves are packed around apples, rootcrops etc to help preserve them[15][16]. Wood - close grained, tough, hard, heavy, strong, not very durable, it takes a high polish, remains smooth under abrasion and has a high shock-resistance[17][18][13][8][19]. It holds nails well, is fair in gluing, dries easily and shrinks moderately[19]. The wood weighs 43lb per cubic foot[20]. Considered by many to be the most valuable hardwood tree in N. America, the sugar maple is used for a wide range of applications including furniture, flooring, turnery, musical instruments and ship building[17][18][13][8][19]. Accidental forms with the grain curled and contorted, known as curly maple and bird's eye maple, are common and are highly prized in cabinet making[13]. The wood is also a very good fuel, giving off a lot of heat and forming very hot embers[13][21]. The ashes of the wood are rich in alkali and yield large quantities of potash[13].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A tea made from the inner bark is a blood tonic, diuretic and expectorant[22]. It has been used in the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea etc[22]. A compound infusion of the bark has been used as drops in treating blindness[23].

The sap has been used for treating sore eyes[23]. The inner bark has been used as an expectorant and cough remedy[23].

Maple syrup is used in cough syrups and is also said to be a liver tonic and kidney cleanser[22].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it usually germinates in the following spring. A lot of the seed is non-viable, it is best to cut a few open to see if there is an embryo[24]. An average of 95% germination can be achieved from viable seed[25]. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours and then stratify for 2 - 4 months at 1 - 8°c. It can be slow to germinate, sometimes taking two years[26]. The seed can be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it has dried and produced any germination inhibitors) and sown immediately. It should germinate in late winter. If the seed is harvested too soon it will produce very weak plants or no plants at all[27][24]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions.

Layering, which takes about 12 months, is successful with most species in this genus.

Cuttings of young shoots in June or July. The cuttings should have 2 - 3 pairs of leaves, plus one pair of buds at the base. Remove a very thin slice of bark at the base of the cutting, rooting is improved if a rooting hormone is used. The rooted cuttings must show new growth during the summer before being potted up otherwise they are unlikely to survive the winter.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Acer saccharum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Of easy cultivation, it prefers a good moist well-drained soil but succeeds on most soils[3][25], though it is more likely to become chlorotic as a result of iron deficiency on alkaline soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Trees need full light and a lot of space[25]. This species is one of the most shade tolerant of the N. American maples[21]. It tolerates atmospheric pollution[28] and so is often used as a street tree, though it can suffer from soil compaction and the use of salt on the roads in frosty weather. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.3.

Hardy to about -45°c when fully dormant[29]. A fast-growing tree for its first 40 years in the wild[9], this species is not a great success in Britain[1], though it does better than once thought[3]. It grows well in Cornwall[30]. In cultivation it has proved to be slow growing when young[3]. Trees can live for 250 years in the wild[9]. A very ornamental tree[1] but a bad companion plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants[15][16].

This species is commercially exploited in America for its sap[1][3]. Along with its sub-species it is the major source of maple syrup[3]. There are some named varieties[31]. The sap can be tapped within 10 - 15 years from seed but it does not flow so well in areas with mild winters[29].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Acer saccharum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Acer saccharum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Acer saccharum
Genus
Acer
Family
Aceraceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

    "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.7 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (1975-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press ISBN 0-12-136450-x (1975-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.613.7 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.122.222.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.123.223.3 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    24. ? 24.024.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    25. ? 25.025.125.2 Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
    26. ? ? The Plantsman. Vol. 5. 1983 - 1984. Royal Horticultural Society (1983-00-00)
    27. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    28. ? 28.028.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    29. ? 29.029.1 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
    30. ? Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
    31. ? Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    32. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Acer saccharum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Acer saccharum"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyAceraceae +
    Belongs to genusAcer +
    Has common nameSugar Maple +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partInner bark +, Leaves +, Sap +, Seeds + and Unknown part +
    Has edible useUnknown use + and Sweetener +
    Has fertility typeInsects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateSlow +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageAcer saccharum.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useFuel +, Potash +, Preservative + and Wood +
    Has mature height30 +
    Has mature width12 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useBlood tonic +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Hepatic + and Ophthalmic +
    Has primary imageAcer saccharum.jpg +
    Has search nameacer saccharum + and x +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teheavy clayture preferenceHeavy clay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy nameAcer saccharum +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +