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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - cooked. It is usually dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[1]. It is best used in the spring when it is rich and juicy[2]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails[3].

The gum from the trunk is hardened (probably in cold water[K]) and used as a chewing gum[4]. It can also be made into a drink[4].

Young shoot tips are used as a tea substitute[3][4].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

The aromatic leaves are used as a moth repellent[5]. The boughs have been used in the home as an incense[4].

A pink dye can be obtained from the bark[6]. The dried and hardened pitch can be chewed as a tooth cleanser[4]. A powder made from the dried and crushed leaves was used as a baby powder by the N. American Indians[6]. The bark can be used as a waterproof covering material for buildings and canoes[4].

Wood - light, soft, coarse grained, not strong, not very durable. Used for interior work, cases, etc[7][8][9]. Of little value as a lumber, it is used mainly for pulp and fuel[10][4].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A gum that exudes from the bark is used externally as an ointment[11]. It has also been used as a wash for sore and infected eyes and as a gargle for sore throats[4]. A decoction is laxative and tonic, it is used to treat stomach problems[4]. Externally, the gum is applied as a poultice to cuts and sores[4].

A decoction of the root bark or stem is used in the treatment of stomach problems and TB[4]. A poultice is applied to joints to ease rheumatism or to the chest to treat lung haemorrhages[4].

A decoction of the leaves is used as a tonic and in the treatment of colds[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[12]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[12]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[13][14]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[14]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[12] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[13].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Abies grandis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[15]. Grows well in heavy clay soils and succeeds in poor sandy soils[16]. Very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[17]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[15]. Trees succeeds in very exposed positions, even if the top is blown out by the wind the trees make one or more new tops and continue growing with no loss of vigour[18][16]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[19]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[19].

This species thrives exceedingly well in the moister parts of Britain, where it grows very quickly[18]. It is cultivated for timber in W. and N. Europe[20]. Trees are slow growing for the first few years but they are then quite fast with trees growing 60 - 100cm in height and 8cm in girth per year even when they are quite large[15][16]. New growth takes place from early May to July[16]. Trees grow best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and in the far west of Britain[18]. Some trees have reached heights in excess of 60 metres in 100 years in Wales and Scotland, making them amongst the tallest trees in Europe[19]. A very ornamental plant[15], it is rarely harmed by disease, insects or frost[15]. The crushed leaves have a fruity orange-flavoured aroma[16]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[19].

Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[19]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Abies grandis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Abies grandis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Abies grandis
Genus
Abies
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
  • Unknown part (Drink)
  • Unknown part (Gum)
  • Inner bark (Unknown use)
  • Unknown part (Tea)
Material uses
  • Unknown part (Baby care)
  • Unknown part (Dye)
  • Unknown part (Incense)
  • Unknown part (Repellent)
  • Unknown part (Roofing)
  • Unknown part (Wood)
Medicinal uses
  • Unknown part (Antirheumatic)
  • Unknown part (Laxative)
  • Unknown part (Ophthalmic)
  • Unknown part (Skin)
  • Unknown part (Stomachic)
  • Unknown part (TB)
  • Unknown part (Tonic)
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
75 x 8 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  2. ? 2.02.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  4. ? 4.004.014.024.034.044.054.064.074.084.094.104.114.124.134.144.15 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  17. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.419.519.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  20. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  21. ? Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (1955-00-00)