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Toxic parts

Frequent consumption of the tea made from the flowers may cause heart damage[1].

Edible uses


Young leaves - raw or cooked[2]. A mild flavour and a tender but mucilaginous texture, they are very nice in salads[K]. The leaves can be cooked as greens[2]. Sap - obtained from next to the bark and used as a refreshing drink[3][4][5]. It can also be concentrated into a syrup and used as a sweetener[6]. Flowers - raw. They can be added to salads[6]. The flowers are used as a tea substitute. They are sweet and fragrant[6]. A very good chocolate substitute is made from a paste of the ground fruits and flowers[7][3][5][6]. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste decomposes readily[7].

Unknown part



Material uses

A tough fibre is obtained from the inner bark[8][9]. The bark is soaked in water then boiled. It is then rubbed on a stick to separate the fibres which can then be used for making thread for sewing, fine yarn for weaving bags, clothing etc and cordage for making nets, shoes, twine, mats etc[10][11][9][2]. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[12]. Wood - soft, straight grained, light, weak, not durable, easily worked, resistant to splitting, it holds nails badly, holds glue, paint and lacquer well, seasons well but shrinks considerably. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot[9], is odourless and bland-tasting[11]. A commercially important timber in its native range[11][13]. The white wood is excellent for turning and carving, it is used for making woodenware such as spoons, cheap furniture, pulp etc[8][14][15][9][13].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A tea made from the inner bark is applied to burns - it soothes and softens the skin[16]. It is taken internally in the treatment of lung complaints, dysentery, heart burn and weak stomach[1][2]. The bark is diuretic[2]. An infusion has been taken to promote urination[2]. A decoction of the bark, mixed with cornmeal, has been used as a poultice to draw out boils[1][2]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic and sedative[11]. It is used in the treatment of hypertension, hardening of the arteries, digestive complaints associated with anxiety, feverish colds, respiratory catarrh, migraine etc[17]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[17]. An infusion of the leaves has been used as an eyewash[2]. A poultice of the leaves has been used in the treatment of burns and scalds, broken bones and swollen areas[2]. A tea or tincture made from the leaves, flowers and buds has traditionally been used for nervous headaches, restlessness and painful digestion[1]. Use with caution, see notes above on toxicity. A decoction of the roots and the bark has been taken in the treatment of internal haemorrhaging[2]. A decoction of the roots has been used as a vermifuge to rid the body of worms[2].


Ecosystem niche/layer


Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[18]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[18]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[18]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[18]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[19]. Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[12].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Tilia americana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but succeeds on slightly acid soils[20][12]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soils[12]. Dislikes exposed positions[12]. Another entry in the same book says that it is fairly wind tolerant[12]. Succeeds in full sun or semi-shade[21]. A fast-growing and moderately long-lived tree in the wild, it starts producing seed when about 15 years old and continues for at least another 85 years[13]. It is generally unsatisfactory in Britain, preferring a continental climate and growing more slowly and not usually producing fertile seed in areas with cool summers[12]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[12]. They are highly shade-tolerant according to another report[11]. Trees respond well to coppicing, sending up lots of suckers from the roots[11]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[17]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. A good bee plant[22][23]. Trees are usually attacked by aphids which cover the ground and the leaves with a sticky honeydew[21]. Quite tolerant of root disturbance, semi-mature trees up to 5 metres tall have been transplanted successfully. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[12].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Tilia americana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Tilia americana.




None listed.


None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Tilia americana
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Flower Colour
Flower Type

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"image:AmericanBasswood.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:AmericanBasswood.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:AmericanBasswood.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:AmericanBasswood.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-01-01)
  2. ? Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-01-01)
  3. ? Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-01-01)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  5. ? Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-01-01)
  6. ? Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-01-01)
  7. ? Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-01-01)
  8. ? Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-01-01)
  9. ? Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-01-01)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-01-01)
  11. ? Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-01-01)
  12. ? 12.0012.0112.0212.0312.0412.0512.0612.0712.0812.0912.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-01-01)
  13. ? Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-01-01)
  14. ? Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-01-01)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-01-01)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-01-01)
  17. ? Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-01-01)
  18. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-01-01)
  19. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-01-01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-01-01)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-01-01)
  22. ? Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-01-01)
  23. ? McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-01-01)
Facts about "Tilia americana"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Belongs to familyTiliaceae +
Belongs to genusTilia +
Has binomial nameTilia americana +
Has common nameAmerican Basswood +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Leaves + and Sap +
Has edible useChocolate +, Unknown use +, Sweetener + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeBees +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageAmericanBasswood.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useFibre + and Wood +
Has mature height25 +
Has mature width12 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Demulcent +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Ophthalmic +, Poultice +, Sedative + and Vermifuge +
Has primary imageAmericanBasswood.JPG +
Has search nametilia americana + and american basswood +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameTilia americana +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana +, Tilia americana + and Tilia americana +