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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4]. Delicious when eaten out of hand, the fruit is also used in pies, preserves etc[5].

Root - cooked. The root, which should be neither too young nor too old, requires a lot of boiling[3]. Young shoots - peeled and eaten raw or cooked like asparagus[6]. They are harvested as they emerge through the ground in the spring and whilst they are still tender.

A herb tea is made from the dried leaves[7][8][5]. Another report says that a type of tea made from raspberry and blackberry leaves is an excellent coffee substitute[3].

Unknown part

Fruit

Material uses

A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[9].

A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper[10]. The stems are harvested in the summer after the fruit has been eaten, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then hand beaten with mallets or ball milled for 3 hours. The paper is light brown in colour[10].

A decongestant face-mask made from the fruit is used cosmetically to soothe reddened skin[3].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Antiemetic[11][12].

The leaves and roots are anti-inflammatory, astringent, decongestant, ophthalmic, oxytocic and stimulant[13][11][12][14][15]. A tea made from them is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, as a tonic for the uterus to strengthen pregnant women, and as an aid in childbirth[13][14][16]. The tea has also been shown as effective in relieving painful menstrual cramps[14]. The active ingredients both stimulate and relax the uterus[14]. They can be used during the last three months of pregnancy and during childbirth, but should not be used earlier[17]. Externally, the leaves and roots are used as a gargle to treat tonsillitis and mouth inflammations, as a poultice and wash to treat sores, conjunctivitis, minor wounds, burns and varicose ulcers[17][16]. The leaves are harvested in the summer and dried for later use[18].

The fruit is antiscorbutic and diuretic[3]. Fresh raspberry juice, mixed with a little honey, makes an excellent refrigerant beverage to be taken in the heat of a fever[7]. Made into a syrup, it is said to have a beneficial effect on the heart[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[19]. Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn.

Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[19].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Rubus idaeus. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep well-drained loamy soil on the acid side[20][21]. Dislikes very heavy soils[20][19], light soils[13] and alkaline soils[19]. Prefers an open position but tolerates some shade[20]. Plants crop less well when grown in the shade of trees though they do well in the open on a north-facing slope[19]. Requires a position sheltered from strong winds[19]. Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5[19].

Raspberries are frequently cultivated in temperate regions of the world, both in the garden and commercially, for their edible fruit. There are many named varieties able to supply fresh fruit from mid-summer to the autumn[20][19]. High costs of picking the fruit means that little is actually sold fresh, most of the commercially cultivated crops either being used for preserves or grown for the 'Pick Your Own' trade. All the cultivars are self-fertile[19]. This species has biennial stems, it produces a number of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit in their second year and then die[19]. It is best not to grow raspberries near blackberries or potatoes[22].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Rubus idaeus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Rubus idaeus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Rubus idaeus
Genus
Rubus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.7 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    19. ? 19.0019.0119.0219.0319.0419.0519.0619.0719.0819.0919.1019.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    21. ? Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (1975-00-00)
    22. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
    23. ? Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    24. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-17

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