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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit[1][2]. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter and has a strong scent of turpentine[3].

Fruit

Material uses

A yellow dye is obtained from the inner bark[4].

An oil obtained from the seed has insecticidal properties similar to pyrethrum[5]. Wood - heavy, hard, strong, close grained. Used for furniture[6].

The bark is a cork substitute[6].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Amur cork tree, called Huang Bai in China, is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs, but one that should be used with care[7][8]. A strongly bitter remedy, the bark acts strongly on the kidneys and is regarded as a detoxicant for hot damp conditions[9]. Recent research has shown that the plant is useful in the treatment of meningitis and conjunctivitis[8]. Huang Bai should only be used under professional supervision and should not be take during pregnancy[8].

The bark is alterative, antibacterial, antirheumatic, aphrodisiac, bitter stomachic, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, ophthalmic, skin, vasodilator and tonic[10][11][12][13][4][7][9][14]. It is taken internally in the treatment of acute diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice, vaginal infections including Trichomonas, acute urinary tract infections, enteritis, boils, abscesses, night sweats and skin diseases[9][8]. It is commonly used in conjunction with Scutellaria baicalensis and Coptis chinensis in a preparation called 'injection of three yellow herbs'[9]. It is given intramuscularly for upper respiratory tract infections[9]. The bark of 10 year old trees is harvested in the winter or spring and dried for later use[9][8].

The fruit is expectorant[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in the autumn in a cold frame[3]. Stored seed requires 2 months cold stratification, sow in late winter in a cold frame[15][16]. Germination is usually good. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up in autumn and over winter in a cold frame. Fair to good percentage[15].

Root cuttings - obtain in December and store in leafmold in a warm place for 3 weeks. Cut into 4cm lengths and plant horizontally in pots. Grow on in a warm greenhouse. Good percentage[15].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Phellodendron amurense. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moisture retentive well-drained deep rich loam in full sun[17][3]. Prefers a neutral to alkaline soil[9]. Succeeds in shallow chalky soils[18]. Grows best in areas with long hot summers[3]. Plants are gross feeders and require a rich soil if they are to perform well[17].

Dormant plants are fully hardy in Britain[19], but the young growth is liable to damage from late spring frosts[17][19][3]. The leaves are aromatic[19]. This species is occasionally cultivated for timber in S.E. Europe[20].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Phellodendron amurense. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Phellodendron amurense.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Phellodendron amurense
Genus
Phellodendron
Family
Rutaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Phellodendron amurense0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Phellodendron amurense0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Phellodendron amurense0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Phellodendron amurense0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    5. ? 5.05.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Kariyone. T. Atlas of Medicinal Plants. ()
    13. ? 13.013.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    16. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    18. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    20. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)

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    Facts about "Phellodendron amurense"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyRutaceae +
    Belongs to genusPhellodendron +
    Has binomial namePhellodendron amurense +
    Has common nameAmur Cork Tree +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile +
    Has flowers of typeDioecious +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imagePhellodendron amurense0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useCork +, Dye +, Insecticide +, Oil + and Wood +
    Has mature height12 +
    Has mature width15 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntibacterial +, Bitter +, Cholagogue +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Hypoglycaemic +, Ophthalmic +, Skin +, Stomachic + and Vasodilator +
    Has primary imagePhellodendron amurense0.jpg +
    Has search namephellodendron amurense + and amur cork tree +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy namePhellodendron amurense +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy + and Secondary canopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense +, Phellodendron amurense + and Phellodendron amurense +