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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Root - cooked[1][2][3]. It is a source of 'salep', a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder[1][4][5]. Salep is a starch-like substance with a sweetish taste and a faint somewhat unpleasant smell[2]. It is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or can be added to cereals and used in making bread etc[6][7]. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day[6][8].

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Dactylorhiza maculata.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Salep (see above for more details) is very nutritive and demulcent[2]. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot[2]. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal[2]. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly[2]. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed[2].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil[9]. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move.

Division of the tubers as the flowers fade[10]. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers[10].

Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower[10]. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally[10].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Dactylorhiza maculata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils, but it prefers a moist loam and lots of leaf mould[11]. Requires a deep rich soil[12]. Grows well in full sun or partial shade[11], doing well in a woodland garden[10].

Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid[10]. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials[10]. Cultivated plants are very susceptible to the predation of slugs and snails[10].

Plants can succeed in a lawn in various parts of the country. The lawn should not be mown early in the year before or immediately after flowering[9]. Plant out bulbs whilst the plant is dormant, preferably in the autumn[9]. Bulbs can also be transplanted with a large ball of soil around the roots when they are in leaf, they are impatient of root disturbance[12].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Dactylorhiza maculata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Dactylorhiza maculata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Dactylorhiza maculata
Genus
Dactylorhiza
Family
Orchidaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    ?
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.7 Cribb. P. & Bailes. C. Hardy Orchids. Orchids for the Garden and Frost-free Greenhouse. Christopher Helm. London. ISBN 0 7470 0416 1 (1989-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Grey. C. H. Hardy Bulbs. Williams & Norgate. (1938-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    13. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

    "image:Dactylorhiza maculata20090612 162.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.