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Uses

Toxic parts

The plant is poisonous in large quantities[1]. Large doses can cause respiratory failure in children[2]. See the report below on medicinal uses for more information.

Edible uses

Notes

Young shoots and leaves - cooked[3][4]. Some caution is suggested because there is a report that the plant is poisonous in large quantities. The old leaves are dried and used as a spice[3][4].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

The essential oil 'camphor' is obtained from the leaves and twigs[5][1][6][7][8]. It is extracted commercially by passing a current of steam through the wood chips, 30 kilos of wood yielding 1 kilo of camphor[9]. Camphor is used medicinally, in perfumes, as an insecticide and also to make celluloid and as a wood preservative[10]. It can also be put in shoes to cure perspiring feet[11] (probably by acting as a deodorant rather than preventing perspiration[K]).

The wood has been burnt as a fumigant during epidemics[12].

Wood - beautifully grained, light brownish, takes a good polish[13]. It is used for making furniture, cabinets, the interior finish of buildings etc[1][6][13].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Camphor has a long history of herbal use in the Orient with a wide range of uses. It has occasionally been used internally in the treatment of hysteria, but in modern day herbalism it is mainly used as the essential oil and internal use is not advised[14].

The wood and leaves are analgesic, antispasmodic, odontalgic, rubefacient, stimulant. An infusion is used as an inhalant in the treatment of colds and diseases of the lungs[6][7][15][11][16]. The plant is more commonly used in the form of the essential oil which can be obtained by distillation of the chipped branches, trunk and wood of the tree, or from the leaves and twigs. Wood 24 - 40 years old is normally used[2]. The essential oil is anthelmintic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, sedative and tonic[1][17][16][18]. It is used externally in liniments for treating joint and muscle pains, balms for chilblains, chapped lips, cold sores, skin diseases etc and as an inhalant for bronchial congestion[16]. Some caution is advised, excessive use causes vomiting, palpitations, convulsions and death[16]. It is possible that the oil can be absorbed through the skin, causing systemic poisoning[16].

The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Piercing'[19]. It is used in the treatment of digestive complaints and depression[16].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse[20]. Remove the fruit pulp since this can inhibit germination[20]. Germination can take 1 - 6 months at 20°c[21]. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible in a warm greenhouse[22]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Consider giving them some protection from the cold for at least their first two winters outdoors. Cuttings of semi-ripe side shoots, 7cm with a heel, June/July in a frame with bottom heat[22].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Cinnamomum camphora. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils[7] but prefers a fertile sandy moisture-retentive well-drained soil in full sun or light part-day shade[20]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.

Camphor is grown commercially in China and Japan as a medicinal tree and also for its essential oil[6]. It is only hardy in the milder areas of Britain[23][24], though it can survive occasional lows down to about -10°c when fully dormant[7]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. There are various large trees that are growing well in Cornwall[25]. A very slow growing tree[1]. The roots are very sensitive to disturbance[21].

There are some named varieties, selected for their ornamental value[20].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Cinnamomum camphora. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Cinnamomum camphora.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Cinnamomum camphora
Genus
Cinnamomum
Family
Lauraceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
9
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    6 x 6 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Cinnamomum camphora - camphor tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    8. ? 8.08.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    12. ? 12.012.1 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 [Flora of China] (1994-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.516.6 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Westwood. C. Aromatherapy - A guide for home use. Amberwood Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-9517723-0-9 (1993-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.1 Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    24. ? Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent (1990-00-00)
    25. ? Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()

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    Facts about "Cinnamomum camphora"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyLauraceae +
    Belongs to genusCinnamomum +
    Has common nameCamphor +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Leaves +
    Has edible useSeasoning + and Unknown use +
    Has fertility typeDiptera +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateSlow +
    Has hardiness zone9 +
    Has imageCinnamomum camphora - camphor tree.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDeodorant +, Essential +, Preservative +, Repellent + and Wood +
    Has mature height6 +
    Has mature width6 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Anthelmintic +, Antirheumatic +, Antispasmodic +, Aromatherapy +, Cardiotonic +, Carminative +, Diaphoretic +, Odontalgic +, Rubefacient +, Sedative +, Stimulant + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageCinnamomum camphora - camphor tree.jpg +
    Has search namecinnamomum camphora + and x +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy nameCinnamomum camphora +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +