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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

The leaves are nibbled[1], brewed into a tea or used as a flavouring in root beer[2]. They have a delicious scent and flavour. An extract of the leaves is used to flavour candy and soft drinks[1][2]. In Mexico the herb is used in the preparation of 'navaitai', an alcoholic beverage produced from sprouted maize[2]. A tea can be made from an infusion of the stems and roots[3][1][4].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

The plant's stoloniferous root system, and dwarf spreading habit make it a god ground cover, though it is a difficult plant to establish and grow well[5]. The plant is used in perfumery because of its delicate scent[6].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Pipsissewa was much used by many tribes of native North American Indians to induce sweating and treat fevers, including typhus[7][8]. The plant contains hydroquinones which have a pronounced disinfectant effect within the urinary tract and modern day herbalism mainly employs the plant to treat urinary problems such as cystitis and urethritis[7].

The whole plant is alterative, antibacterial, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, rubefacient, stimulant and tonic[9][6][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. An infusion is used in the treatment of various problems related to the urinary system, it is also prescribed for more serious conditions such as kidney stones and gonorrhoea[7]. A decoction is very efficacious in the treatment of skin diseases[9]. Used externally, the fresh leaves are rubefacient and internally they are of great use in cardiac and kidney diseases, chronic rheumatism and scrofula[9][17]. Only the leaves are officinal, though the whole plant is often used[9]. The plant is loaded with the biologically active compounds arbutin, sitosterol and ursolic acid[16]. Arbutin hydrolyzes to the toxic urinary antiseptic hydroquinone[16]. The plant contains glycosides and an essential oil that are used as an astringent and tonic[4]. The plant is harvested when in flower, and the leaves on their own can be harvested during the growing season. They are dried for later use[17].

A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves[6]. It is used in the treatment of inflammations of the urinary system[6].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - this is very difficult to germinate, see the notes above in cultivation details. It is best sown in a shady area of the greenhouse on moist sphagnum peat as soon as it is ripe. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a shady position in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Division. Rather difficult because the plant is very sensitive to root disturbance. It is best attempted in the spring as the plant comes into growth[18].

Cuttings of softwood, June in a frame. Use some soil from around an established plant[10].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Chimaphila umbellata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a light moist but well-drained lime-free soil and shade from direct sunlight[19].

This species is difficult to propagate and grow in cultivation, mainly because it has certain mycorrhizal associations in the wild and these are necessary if the plant is to thrive[18]. It is best to use some soil collected from around an established plant when sowing seed or planting out into a new position[18]. The plant has wide-spreading fibrous feeding roots and will often die or fail to increase in size if these are disturbed.

The flowers have a sweet but refreshing perfume[5].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Chimaphila umbellata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Chimaphila umbellata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Chimaphila umbellata
Genus
Chimaphila
Family
Pyrolaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
partial sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Chimaphila2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Chimaphila2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Chimaphila2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Chimaphila2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Craighead. J., Craighead. F. and Davis. R. A Field Guide to Rocky Mountain Wildflowers The Riverside Press ISBN 63-7093 (1963-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    14. ? 14.014.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2624-6 (1993-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    19. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    20. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-50

    "image:Chimaphila2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Chimaphila umbellata"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyPyrolaceae +
    Belongs to genusChimaphila +
    Functions asGround cover +
    Has binomial nameChimaphila umbellata +
    Has common namePipsissewa +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Leaves +
    Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeInsects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateSlow +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageChimaphila2.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useEssential +
    Has mature height0.35 +
    Has mature width0.5 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAlterative +, Antibacterial +, Astringent +, Disinfectant +, Diuretic +, Rubefacient +, Stimulant + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageChimaphila2.jpg +
    Has search namechimaphila umbellata + and pipsissewa +
    Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid + and Acid +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferencePartial sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameChimaphila umbellata +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheSoil surface +
    Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata +, Chimaphila umbellata + and Chimaphila umbellata +