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(Migrating article to Creative Commons BY-SA, isolating PFAF NC content for manual migration. See the page: Migrating PFAF Licensing)
 
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|material uses references=PFAFimport-178,PFAFimport-74,PFAFimport-146,PFAFimport-158
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-178,PFAFimport-74,PFAFimport-146,PFAFimport-158
  
|cultivation=Succeeds in most soils so long as they are well-drained{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers an open loam and a hot dry position{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. Succeeds in an alkaline soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants are fast growing, even in poor soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-146}}.
+
|cultivation notes=
 +
|PFAF cultivation notes=Succeeds in most soils so long as they are well-drained{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers an open loam and a hot dry position{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. Succeeds in an alkaline soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants are fast growing, even in poor soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-146}}.
 
Plants are hardy to about -20°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c when fully dormant{{Ref | PFAFimport-160}}.
 
Plants are hardy to about -20°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c when fully dormant{{Ref | PFAFimport-160}}.
 
The jujube is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-50}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The trees need a hot dry summer if they are to fruit well, which rather restricts their potential in a country like Britain[238, K]. The tree spreads by root suckers and self-sowing, often forming dense thickets. Where the climate suits it, the plant can escape from cultivation and become an invasive and problematic weed{{Ref | PFAFimport-274}}.
 
The jujube is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-50}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The trees need a hot dry summer if they are to fruit well, which rather restricts their potential in a country like Britain[238, K]. The tree spreads by root suckers and self-sowing, often forming dense thickets. Where the climate suits it, the plant can escape from cultivation and become an invasive and problematic weed{{Ref | PFAFimport-274}}.
Line 100: Line 101:
 
Trees form a deep taproot and should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Trees form a deep taproot and should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Fast growing and quick to mature, it can fruit in 3 - 4 years from seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Fast growing and quick to mature, it can fruit in 3 - 4 years from seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|propagation=Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires 3 months warm then 3 months cold stratification{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Germination should take place in the first spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer.
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires 3 months warm then 3 months cold stratification{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Germination should take place in the first spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer.
 
Root cuttings in a greenhouse in the winter{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Best results are achieved if a temperature of 5 - 10°c can be maintained{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
Root cuttings in a greenhouse in the winter{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Best results are achieved if a temperature of 5 - 10°c can be maintained{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, November to January in a frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, November to January in a frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
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|range=E. Asia - China, Japan.
 
|range=E. Asia - China, Japan.
 
|habitat=Dry gravelly or stony slopes of hills and mountains{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
|habitat=Dry gravelly or stony slopes of hills and mountains{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
|material use notes=Plants can be grown as a hedge{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}.
+
|material use notes=
 +
|PFAF material use notes=Plants can be grown as a hedge{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}.
 
Wood - dense, hard, compact, tough. Used for turnery, agricultural implements etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-146}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-158}}. It makes an excellent fuel{{Ref | PFAFimport-146}} and a good charcoal{{Ref | PFAFimport-158}}.
 
Wood - dense, hard, compact, tough. Used for turnery, agricultural implements etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-146}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-158}}. It makes an excellent fuel{{Ref | PFAFimport-146}} and a good charcoal{{Ref | PFAFimport-158}}.
|edible use notes=Fruit - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-100}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-158}}. Mealy and sweet{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}. A sourish-sweet flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried like dates or cooked in puddings, cakes, breads, jellies, soups etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The dried fruit has the nicest taste{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-132}}. The fruits are often left to become wrinkled and spongy, which increases their sweetness, and are then eaten fresh or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. The dried fruit can also be ground into a powder. This powder is used in the preparation of 'kochujang', a fermented hot pepper-soybean paste that resembles miso{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Fruits are about 13mm in diameter{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}} and contain one or two seeds{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Average yields from wild trees in the Himalayas are 9.5kg per year{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}}. The fruit contains about 8.7% sugars, 2.6% protein, 1.4% ash, 1.7% pectin and 1.3% tannin{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}}. The fruit is about 25mm long, though it can be larger in cultivated varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|edible use notes=
 +
|PFAF edible use notes=Fruit - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-100}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-158}}. Mealy and sweet{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}. A sourish-sweet flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried like dates or cooked in puddings, cakes, breads, jellies, soups etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The dried fruit has the nicest taste{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-132}}. The fruits are often left to become wrinkled and spongy, which increases their sweetness, and are then eaten fresh or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. The dried fruit can also be ground into a powder. This powder is used in the preparation of 'kochujang', a fermented hot pepper-soybean paste that resembles miso{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Fruits are about 13mm in diameter{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}} and contain one or two seeds{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Average yields from wild trees in the Himalayas are 9.5kg per year{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}}. The fruit contains about 8.7% sugars, 2.6% protein, 1.4% ash, 1.7% pectin and 1.3% tannin{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}}. The fruit is about 25mm long, though it can be larger in cultivated varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Leaves - cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails{{Ref | PFAFimport-179}}. A nutritional analysis is available{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 
Leaves - cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails{{Ref | PFAFimport-179}}. A nutritional analysis is available{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
|medicinal use notes=Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy. It aids weight gain, improves muscular strength and increases stamina{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. In Chinese medicine it is prescribed as a tonic to strengthen liver function{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. Japanese research has shown that jujube increases immune-system resistance. In one clinical trial in China 12 patients with liver complaints were given jujube, peanuts and brown sugar nightly. In four weeks their liver function had improved{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
+
|medicinal use notes=
 +
|PFAF medicinal use notes=Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy. It aids weight gain, improves muscular strength and increases stamina{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. In Chinese medicine it is prescribed as a tonic to strengthen liver function{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. Japanese research has shown that jujube increases immune-system resistance. In one clinical trial in China 12 patients with liver complaints were given jujube, peanuts and brown sugar nightly. In four weeks their liver function had improved{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
Antidote, diuretic, emollient, expectorant{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}}.
 
Antidote, diuretic, emollient, expectorant{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-194}}.
 
The dried fruits contain saponins, triterpenoids and alkaloids{{Ref | PFAFimport-279}}. They are anodyne, anticancer, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-176}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}. They are considered to purify the blood and aid digestion{{Ref | PFAFimport-240}}. They are used internally in the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, pharyngitis, bronchitis, anaemia, irritability and hysteria{{Ref | PFAFimport-176}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-279}}.
 
The dried fruits contain saponins, triterpenoids and alkaloids{{Ref | PFAFimport-279}}. They are anodyne, anticancer, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-176}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}. They are considered to purify the blood and aid digestion{{Ref | PFAFimport-240}}. They are used internally in the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, pharyngitis, bronchitis, anaemia, irritability and hysteria{{Ref | PFAFimport-176}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-279}}.

Latest revision as of 15:25, 4 May 2013

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4][5]. Mealy and sweet[6]. A sourish-sweet flavour[7]. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried like dates or cooked in puddings, cakes, breads, jellies, soups etc[8]. The dried fruit has the nicest taste[9][10]. The fruits are often left to become wrinkled and spongy, which increases their sweetness, and are then eaten fresh or cooked[11]. The dried fruit can also be ground into a powder. This powder is used in the preparation of 'kochujang', a fermented hot pepper-soybean paste that resembles miso[8]. Fruits are about 13mm in diameter[12] and contain one or two seeds[11]. Average yields from wild trees in the Himalayas are 9.5kg per year[12]. The fruit contains about 8.7% sugars, 2.6% protein, 1.4% ash, 1.7% pectin and 1.3% tannin[12]. The fruit is about 25mm long, though it can be larger in cultivated varieties[13].

The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute[8].

Leaves - cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails[14]. A nutritional analysis is available[15].

Unknown part

Fruit

Leaves

Material uses

Plants can be grown as a hedge[16]. Wood - dense, hard, compact, tough. Used for turnery, agricultural implements etc[17][18][5]. It makes an excellent fuel[18] and a good charcoal[5].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy. It aids weight gain, improves muscular strength and increases stamina[19]. In Chinese medicine it is prescribed as a tonic to strengthen liver function[19]. Japanese research has shown that jujube increases immune-system resistance. In one clinical trial in China 12 patients with liver complaints were given jujube, peanuts and brown sugar nightly. In four weeks their liver function had improved[19].

Antidote, diuretic, emollient, expectorant[9][20][7][16][12]. The dried fruits contain saponins, triterpenoids and alkaloids[21]. They are anodyne, anticancer, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic[22][23][15]. They are considered to purify the blood and aid digestion[24]. They are used internally in the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, pharyngitis, bronchitis, anaemia, irritability and hysteria[23][11][21]. The seed contains a number of medically active compounds including saponins, triterpenes, flavonoids and alkaloids[21]. It is hypnotic, narcotic, sedative, stomachic and tonic[25][23][15]. It is used internally in the treatment of palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night sweats and excessive perspiration[23][11]. The root is used in the treatment of dyspepsia[15]. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of fevers[22][24]. The root is made into a powder and applied to old wounds and ulcers[24]. The leaves are astringent and febrifuge[22][15]. They are said to promote the growth of hair[15]. They are used to form a plaster in the treatment of strangury[24]. The plant is a folk remedy for anaemia, hypertonia, nephritis and nervous diseases[15].

The plant is widely used in China as a treatment for burns[15].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires 3 months warm then 3 months cold stratification[26]. Germination should take place in the first spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer.

Root cuttings in a greenhouse in the winter[13]. Best results are achieved if a temperature of 5 - 10°c can be maintained[11]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, November to January in a frame[11].

Division of suckers in the dormant season[7]. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Ziziphus jujuba. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils so long as they are well-drained[3][13]. Prefers an open loam and a hot dry position[1][3]. Succeeds in an alkaline soil[13]. Plants are fast growing, even in poor soils[18].

Plants are hardy to about -20°c[13]. Another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c when fully dormant[27]. The jujube is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties[28][8]. The trees need a hot dry summer if they are to fruit well, which rather restricts their potential in a country like Britain[238, K]. The tree spreads by root suckers and self-sowing, often forming dense thickets. Where the climate suits it, the plant can escape from cultivation and become an invasive and problematic weed[29]. Trees are resistant to most pests and diseases[27]. Responds well to coppicing[18]. Trees form a deep taproot and should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible[13].

Fast growing and quick to mature, it can fruit in 3 - 4 years from seed[13].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Ziziphus jujuba. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Ziziphus jujuba.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Ziziphus jujuba
Genus
Ziziphus
Family
Rhamnaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
10 x 7 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Kariyone. T. Atlas of Medicinal Plants. ()
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.611.7 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Parmar. C. and Kaushal. M.K. Wild Fruits of the Sub-Himalayan Region. Kalyani Publishers. New Delhi. (1982-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.613.713.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.515.615.715.815.9 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
  17. ? 17.017.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.4 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1972-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.3 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.222.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.123.223.323.4 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.124.224.324.4 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
  26. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  27. ? 27.027.1 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
  28. ? 28.028.1 ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  29. ? Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)