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(Adding article state template.)
(Migrating article to Creative Commons BY-SA, isolating PFAF NC content for manual migration. See the page: Migrating PFAF Licensing)
 
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|material uses references=PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-235,PFAFimport-229
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-235,PFAFimport-229
  
|cultivation=Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|cultivation notes=
 +
|PFAF cultivation notes=Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
A relatively fast-growing plant in the wild, it often forms thickets by means of root suckers{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
A relatively fast-growing plant in the wild, it often forms thickets by means of root suckers{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
All parts of the plant are fragrant. The bruised foliage has a delicious resinous orange-like perfume{{Ref | PFAFimport-245}}.
 
All parts of the plant are fragrant. The bruised foliage has a delicious resinous orange-like perfume{{Ref | PFAFimport-245}}.
 
Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
 
Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
 
Flowers are formed on the old wood{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}.
 
Flowers are formed on the old wood{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}.
|propagation=Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer.
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer.
 
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.
 
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.
 
Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
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|range=Eastern N. America - Quebec to Florida, west to Minnesota and Oklahoma.
 
|range=Eastern N. America - Quebec to Florida, west to Minnesota and Oklahoma.
 
|habitat=Found on upland rocky hillsides and on moist low-lying sites, in open woods, on bluffs or in thickets{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
|habitat=Found on upland rocky hillsides and on moist low-lying sites, in open woods, on bluffs or in thickets{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
|material use notes=The fruits have been used by young men as a perfume{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
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|material use notes=
 +
|PFAF material use notes=The fruits have been used by young men as a perfume{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
Wood - soft. It weighs 35lb per cubic foot{{Ref | PFAFimport-235}}. Of little use{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
Wood - soft. It weighs 35lb per cubic foot{{Ref | PFAFimport-235}}. Of little use{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
|edible use notes=Seed - cooked. It is used as a condiment. A pepper substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-106}}. The fruit is rather small, about 4 - 5m in diameter{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}, but is produced in dense clusters which makes harvesting easy[K]. Each fruit contains a single seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
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|edible use notes=
|medicinal use notes=Prickly ash is a warming, stimulating herb that is beneficial for the circulation. It was highly regarded by the native North American Indians who used it especially to alleviate rheumatism and toothache{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. All parts of the plant, but especially the bark and roots, contain the aromatic bitter oil xanthoxylin{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}. This has a number of applications in medicine, especially in the treatment of arthritic and rheumatic conditions, digestive problems and leg ulcers{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. The fruit has a similar medicinal action to the bark{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
+
|PFAF edible use notes=Seed - cooked. It is used as a condiment. A pepper substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-106}}. The fruit is rather small, about 4 - 5m in diameter{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}, but is produced in dense clusters which makes harvesting easy[K]. Each fruit contains a single seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 +
|medicinal use notes=
 +
|PFAF medicinal use notes=Prickly ash is a warming, stimulating herb that is beneficial for the circulation. It was highly regarded by the native North American Indians who used it especially to alleviate rheumatism and toothache{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. All parts of the plant, but especially the bark and roots, contain the aromatic bitter oil xanthoxylin{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}. This has a number of applications in medicine, especially in the treatment of arthritic and rheumatic conditions, digestive problems and leg ulcers{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. The fruit has a similar medicinal action to the bark{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
The bark and roots are irritant, odontalgic and antirheumatic{{Ref | PFAFimport-213}}. Along with the fruit they are diaphoretic, stimulant and a useful tonic in debilitated conditions of the stomach and digestive organs{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. They produce arterial excitement and are of use in the treatment of fevers, ague, poor circulation etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
The bark and roots are irritant, odontalgic and antirheumatic{{Ref | PFAFimport-213}}. Along with the fruit they are diaphoretic, stimulant and a useful tonic in debilitated conditions of the stomach and digestive organs{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. They produce arterial excitement and are of use in the treatment of fevers, ague, poor circulation etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
The fruits are considered more active than the bark, they are also antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic and antirheumatic{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-213}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}.
 
The fruits are considered more active than the bark, they are also antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic and antirheumatic{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-213}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}.

Latest revision as of 15:25, 4 May 2013

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - cooked. It is used as a condiment. A pepper substitute[1]. The fruit is rather small, about 4 - 5m in diameter[2], but is produced in dense clusters which makes harvesting easy[K]. Each fruit contains a single seed[2].

Unknown part

Material uses

The fruits have been used by young men as a perfume[3]. Wood - soft. It weighs 35lb per cubic foot[4]. Of little use[2].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Prickly ash is a warming, stimulating herb that is beneficial for the circulation. It was highly regarded by the native North American Indians who used it especially to alleviate rheumatism and toothache[5]. All parts of the plant, but especially the bark and roots, contain the aromatic bitter oil xanthoxylin[2]. This has a number of applications in medicine, especially in the treatment of arthritic and rheumatic conditions, digestive problems and leg ulcers[2][5]. The fruit has a similar medicinal action to the bark[6].

The bark and roots are irritant, odontalgic and antirheumatic[7]. Along with the fruit they are diaphoretic, stimulant and a useful tonic in debilitated conditions of the stomach and digestive organs[6]. They produce arterial excitement and are of use in the treatment of fevers, ague, poor circulation etc[6]. The fruits are considered more active than the bark, they are also antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic and antirheumatic[6][7][8]. The pulverized root and bark are used to ease the pain of toothache[7][8]. One report says that it is very efficacious, but the sensation of the acrid bark is fully as unpleasant as the toothache[7]. Chewing the bark induces copious salivation[8]. Rubbing the fruit against the skin, especially on the lips or in the mouth, produces a numbing effect[K]. A tea or tincture of the bark has been used in the treatment of rheumatism, dyspepsia, dysentery, heart and kidney troubles etc[8].

A tea made from the inner bark has been used to treat itchy skin[7][3].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help[9]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage[10].

Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions[9].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Zanthoxylum americanum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade[11][12][13].

A relatively fast-growing plant in the wild, it often forms thickets by means of root suckers[2]. All parts of the plant are fragrant. The bruised foliage has a delicious resinous orange-like perfume[14]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Flowers are formed on the old wood[15].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Zanthoxylum americanum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Zanthoxylum americanum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Zanthoxylum americanum
Genus
Zanthoxylum
Family
Rutaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    4 x 4 meters
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type











    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-090-x (1975-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.8 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    10. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    11. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    14. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    15. ? Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 (1991-00-00)
    16. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-43