This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

(Adding article state template.)
(Migrating article to Creative Commons BY-SA, isolating PFAF NC content for manual migration. See the page: Migrating PFAF Licensing)
 
Line 43: Line 43:
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-82,PFAFimport-169,PFAFimport-181,PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-229
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-82,PFAFimport-169,PFAFimport-181,PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-229
  
|cultivation=Thrives in any soil but prefers a sandy loam and full exposure to the south{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants are hardier when grown on poor sandy soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Established plants develop a very deep, branching root system and are very drought resistant{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|cultivation notes=
 +
|PFAF cultivation notes=Thrives in any soil but prefers a sandy loam and full exposure to the south{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants are hardier when grown on poor sandy soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Established plants develop a very deep, branching root system and are very drought resistant{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants are not very hardy in Britain, requiring greenhouse protection according to some reports{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}} whilst another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-164}}.
 
Plants are not very hardy in Britain, requiring greenhouse protection according to some reports{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}} whilst another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-164}}.
 
A slow-growing and fairly long-lived plant, some specimens may be 300 years old{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}. In the plants native environment, its flowers can only be pollinated by a certain species of moth. This moth cannot live in Britain and, if fruit and seed is required, hand pollination is necessary. This can be quite easily and successfully done using something like a small paint brush.
 
A slow-growing and fairly long-lived plant, some specimens may be 300 years old{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}. In the plants native environment, its flowers can only be pollinated by a certain species of moth. This moth cannot live in Britain and, if fruit and seed is required, hand pollination is necessary. This can be quite easily and successfully done using something like a small paint brush.
Line 49: Line 50:
 
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits{{Ref | PFAFimport-233}}
 
Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits{{Ref | PFAFimport-233}}
|propagation=Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse. Pre-soaking the seed for 24 hours in warm water may reduce the germination time. It usually germinates within 1 - 12 months if kept at a temperature of 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and consider giving them some winter protection for at least their first winter outdoors - a simple pane of glass is usually sufficient[K]. Seed is not produced in Britain unless the flowers are hand pollinated.
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse. Pre-soaking the seed for 24 hours in warm water may reduce the germination time. It usually germinates within 1 - 12 months if kept at a temperature of 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and consider giving them some winter protection for at least their first winter outdoors - a simple pane of glass is usually sufficient[K]. Seed is not produced in Britain unless the flowers are hand pollinated.
 
Root cuttings in late winter or early spring. Lift in April/May and remove small buds from base of stem and rhizomes. Dip in dry wood ashes to stop any bleeding and plant in a sandy soil in pots in a greenhouse until established{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Root cuttings in late winter or early spring. Lift in April/May and remove small buds from base of stem and rhizomes. Dip in dry wood ashes to stop any bleeding and plant in a sandy soil in pots in a greenhouse until established{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Division of suckers in late spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the following spring.
 
Division of suckers in late spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the following spring.
 
|range=Southern N. America - Texas. Arizona, northern Mexico.
 
|range=Southern N. America - Texas. Arizona, northern Mexico.
 
|habitat=Mesas, desert washes, plains and desert grasslands, and in deserts, normally between 500 - 2000 metres{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
|habitat=Mesas, desert washes, plains and desert grasslands, and in deserts, normally between 500 - 2000 metres{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
|toxicity notes=The roots contain saponins{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}. Whilst saponins are quite toxic to people, they are poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass straight through. They are also destroyed by prolonged heat, such as slow baking in an oven. Saponins are found in many common foods such as beans[K]. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K].
+
|toxicity notes=
|material use notes=The leaves, or a fibre obtained from them, is used for making ropes and mats{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-169}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
+
|PFAF toxicity notes=The roots contain saponins{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}. Whilst saponins are quite toxic to people, they are poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass straight through. They are also destroyed by prolonged heat, such as slow baking in an oven. Saponins are found in many common foods such as beans[K]. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K].
 +
|material use notes=
 +
|PFAF material use notes=The leaves, or a fibre obtained from them, is used for making ropes and mats{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-169}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
The leaves can be woven into shallow or tray baskets{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. The leaf has also been used as a binding element in coarse coiled basketry{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
The leaves can be woven into shallow or tray baskets{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. The leaf has also been used as a binding element in coarse coiled basketry{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
The roots have a red core and have been used to ornament baskets{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
The roots have a red core and have been used to ornament baskets{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
The roots are rich in saponins and can be used as a soap substitute for washing the hair, body, clothes etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. Also used as a foaming agent in beer{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. A slick soap-like fluid in the trunk has been used as a substitute for soap{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
The roots are rich in saponins and can be used as a soap substitute for washing the hair, body, clothes etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. Also used as a foaming agent in beer{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. A slick soap-like fluid in the trunk has been used as a substitute for soap{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
Wood - light, soft and spongy{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}.
 
Wood - light, soft and spongy{{Ref | PFAFimport-82}}.
|edible use notes=Fruit - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruit is a dry capsule up to 5cm long and 36mm wide{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
+
|edible use notes=
 +
|PFAF edible use notes=Fruit - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruit is a dry capsule up to 5cm long and 36mm wide{{Ref | PFAFimport-229}}.
 
Seedpods{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}. We are not sure how this differs from the fruit but one report mentions edible fruit as well as an edible seedpod.
 
Seedpods{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}. We are not sure how this differs from the fruit but one report mentions edible fruit as well as an edible seedpod.
 
Flowers - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. Delicious raw, they can also be dried, crushed and used as a flavouring{{Ref | PFAFimport-164}}. The flowers are boiled and eaten as a vegetable{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. Used in preserves{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Flowers - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-181}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. Delicious raw, they can also be dried, crushed and used as a flavouring{{Ref | PFAFimport-164}}. The flowers are boiled and eaten as a vegetable{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. Used in preserves{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.

Latest revision as of 15:24, 4 May 2013

Uses

Toxic parts

The roots contain saponins[1]. Whilst saponins are quite toxic to people, they are poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass straight through. They are also destroyed by prolonged heat, such as slow baking in an oven. Saponins are found in many common foods such as beans[K]. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[2][3][4]. The fruit is a dry capsule up to 5cm long and 36mm wide[5].

Seedpods[3]. We are not sure how this differs from the fruit but one report mentions edible fruit as well as an edible seedpod. Flowers - raw or cooked[2][3][6]. Delicious raw, they can also be dried, crushed and used as a flavouring[7]. The flowers are boiled and eaten as a vegetable[6]. Used in preserves[4].

Flowering stem - cooked and used like asparagus[7]. The stems were slow baked for several hours, then dried and broken into pieces to store. They would be soaked in water to soften them before being eaten[6].

Flowers

Fruit

Seedpod

Material uses

The leaves, or a fibre obtained from them, is used for making ropes and mats[8][9][3][6].

The leaves can be woven into shallow or tray baskets[6]. The leaf has also been used as a binding element in coarse coiled basketry[6]. The roots have a red core and have been used to ornament baskets[6]. The roots are rich in saponins and can be used as a soap substitute for washing the hair, body, clothes etc[8][3][6]. Also used as a foaming agent in beer[4]. A slick soap-like fluid in the trunk has been used as a substitute for soap[5].

Wood - light, soft and spongy[8].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

There are no medicinal uses listed for Yucca elata.

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse. Pre-soaking the seed for 24 hours in warm water may reduce the germination time. It usually germinates within 1 - 12 months if kept at a temperature of 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and consider giving them some winter protection for at least their first winter outdoors - a simple pane of glass is usually sufficient[K]. Seed is not produced in Britain unless the flowers are hand pollinated.

Root cuttings in late winter or early spring. Lift in April/May and remove small buds from base of stem and rhizomes. Dip in dry wood ashes to stop any bleeding and plant in a sandy soil in pots in a greenhouse until established[10].

Division of suckers in late spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the following spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Yucca elata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in any soil but prefers a sandy loam and full exposure to the south[11][12]. Plants are hardier when grown on poor sandy soils[12]. Established plants develop a very deep, branching root system and are very drought resistant[8][12].

Plants are not very hardy in Britain, requiring greenhouse protection according to some reports[13][12] whilst another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c[7]. A slow-growing and fairly long-lived plant, some specimens may be 300 years old[5]. In the plants native environment, its flowers can only be pollinated by a certain species of moth. This moth cannot live in Britain and, if fruit and seed is required, hand pollination is necessary. This can be quite easily and successfully done using something like a small paint brush. Individual crowns are monocarpic, dying after flowering[14]. However, the crown will usually produce a number of sideshoots before it dies and these will grow on to flower in later years[14]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[12].

Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[14]

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Yucca elata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Yucca elata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Yucca elata
Genus
Yucca
Family
Agavaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
9
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.6 Pesman. M. W. Meet Flora Mexicana. Dale S. King. Arizona. (1962-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.76.86.9 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  10. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  11. ? Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  13. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)