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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|append to article summary=
 +
|article summary=
 
|primary image=Urtica dioica.jpeg
 
|primary image=Urtica dioica.jpeg
|common=Stinging Nettle
+
|common=Stinging Nettle, Common Nettle
 
|binomial=Urtica dioica
 
|binomial=Urtica dioica
|family=Urticaceae
 
 
|genus=Urtica
 
|genus=Urtica
 +
|family=Urticaceae
 +
|life cycle=perennial
 +
|herbaceous or woody=herbaceous
 +
|deciduous or evergreen=
 +
|flower type=dioecious
 +
|fertility=self sterile
 +
|growth rate=vigorous
 +
|mature measurement unit=metres
 +
|mature height=1.2
 +
|mature width=1
 +
|sun=full sun
 +
|shade=light shade
 +
|hardiness zone=3
 +
|water=moderate
 +
|drought=intolerant
 +
|soil texture=sandy, loamy, clay
 +
|soil ph=acid, neutral, alkaline
 +
|wind=Yes
 +
|maritime=No
 +
|pollution=No
 +
|poornutrition=No
 +
|ecosystem niche=Herbaceous, Soil surface
 +
|native range=Temperate climates
 +
|native environment=Waste ground, hedgerows, woods etc, preferring a rich soil and avoiding acid soils
 +
|edible use notes=
 +
 +
 +
 +
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used for=Colouring}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used for=Curdling agent}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used for=Drink}}{{Has part with edible use
 
 
|part used=Leaves
 
|part used=Leaves
|part used for=Unknown use}}
+
|part used for=Cooked, Dried
 +
|part use details=Stinging nettle has a flavour similar to spinach and cucumber when cooked and is rich in vitamins A, C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium{{Ref | PFAFimport-244}}. Young plants were harvested by Native Americans and used as a cooked plant in spring when other food plants were scarce.  In its peak season, stinging nettle contains up to 25% protein, dry weight, which is high for a leafy green vegetable{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-201}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.  The young leaves are edible and make a very good pot-herb. The leaves are also dried and may then be used to make a tisane, as can also be done with the nettle's flowers.
 +
 
 +
Nettles can be used in a variety of recipes, such as polenta, pesto and purée. Nettle soup is a common use of the plant, particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe. In Nepal and the Kumaon & Garhwal region of Northern India, stinging nettle is known as Sisnu and Kandeli respectively. It is a very popular vegetable and cooked with Indian spices.
 +
Nettles are sometimes used in cheese making, for example in the production of Yarg and as a flavouring in varieties of Gouda{{Ref|wiki}}.  They can also be dried for winter use{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-36}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
 
 +
Young nettle leaves can be cooked as a potherb and added to soups etc.  Nettles are a very valuable addition to the diet, they are a very nutritious food that is easily digested and is high in minerals (especially iron) and vitamins (especially A and C).
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Leaves
 +
|part used for=Drink, Tea
 +
|part use details=A tea is made from the dried leaves, it is warming on a winters day{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Although it often has a bland flavour, it can be added as a tonic to China tea{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Leaves
 +
|part used for=Curdling agent, Rennet
 +
|part use details=The juice of the leaves, or a decoction of the herb, can be used as a rennet substitute in curdling plant milks{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Shoots
 +
|part used for=Drink, Alcohol, Beer
 +
|part use details=Nettle beer is brewed from the young shoots{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}, Stinging Nettle beer has a very short brewing time and can often be drunk seven days from harvest{{Ref|nettlebeer}}. 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Shoots
 +
|part used for=Cooked
 +
|part use details= The young shoots, harvested in the spring when 15 - 20cm long complete with the underground stem are very nice{{Ref | PFAFimport-85}}.
 +
}}
 +
|material use notes=
 +
 
 +
 
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Stem
 +
|part used for=Fibre
 +
|part use details=A strong flax-like fibre is obtained from the stems{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Used for making string and cloth{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-6}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-36}}, it also makes a good quality paper{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}. It is harvested as the plant begins to die down in early autumn and is retted before the fibres are extracted{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-99}}. The fibre is produced in less abundance than from flax (Linun usitatissimum) and is also more difficult to extract{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Stem
 +
|part used for=Biomass
 +
|part use details=The plant matter left over after the fibres have been extracted are a good source of biomass and have been used in the manufacture of sugar, starch, protein and ethyl alcohol{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Plant
 +
|part used for=Compost
 +
|part use details=An essential ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator{{Ref | PFAFimport-32}}. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost. The leaves are also an excellent addition to the compost heap{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-18}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Leaves
 +
|part used for=Hair care
 +
|part use details=A hair wash is made from the infused leaves and this is used as a tonic and antidandruff treatment{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-201}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Leaves
 +
|part used for=Liquid feed, Repelllent
 +
|part use details=The Leaves can be soaked for 7 - 21 days in water to make a very nutritious liquid feed for plants{{Ref | PFAFimport-54}}. This liquid feed is both insect repellent and a good foliar feed{{Ref | PFAFimport-14}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-18}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-53}}.  Although many different species of insects feed on nettles, flies are repelled by the plant so a bunch of freshly cut stems has been used as a repellent in food cupboards{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Seeds
 +
|part used for=Oil
 +
|part use details=An oil obtained from the seeds is used as an illuminant{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
|part used for=Biomass}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used for=Waterproofing
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=The juice of the plant, or a decoction formed by boiling the herb in a strong solution of salt, will curdle milks and thus acts as a rennet substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. This same juice, if rubbed into small seams of leaky wooden tubs, will coagulate and make the tub watertight again{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
|part used for=Compost}}{{Has part with material use
+
}}{{Has part with material use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Plant
|part used for=Dye}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used for=Dye
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=The plants are harvested commercially for extraction of the chlorophyll, which is used as a green colouring agent (E140) in foods and medicines{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.  A beautiful and permanent green dye is obtained from a decoction of the leaves and stems{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.  A yellow dye is obtained from the root when boiled with alum{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
|part used for=Fibre}}{{Has part with material use
+
}}
|part used=Unknown part
+
|medicinal use notes=Nettles have a long history of use in the home as a herbal remedy. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used as a cleansing tonic and blood purifier so the plant is often used in the treatment of hay fever, arthritis, anaemia etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
|part used for=Hair care}}{{Has part with material use
+
The whole plant is antiasthmatic, antidandruff, astringent, depurative, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic, hypoglycaemic and a stimulating tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-36}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-165}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. An infusion of the plant is very valuable in stemming internal bleeding{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}, it is also used to treat anaemia, excessive menstruation, haemorrhoids, arthritis, rheumatism and skin complaints, especially eczema{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Externally, the plant is used to treat skin complaints, arthritic pain, gout, sciatica, neuralgia, haemorrhoids, hair problems etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
|part used=Unknown part
+
The fresh leaves of nettles have been rubbed or beaten onto the skin in the treatment of rheumatism etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. This practice, called urtification, causes intense irritation to the skin as it is stung by the nettles. It is believed that this treatment works in two ways. Firstly, it acts as a counter-irritant, bringing more blood to the area to help remove the toxins that cause rheumatism. Secondly, the formic acid from the nettles is believed to have a beneficial effect upon the rheumatic joints.
|part used for=Liquid feed}}{{Has part with material use
+
For medicinal purposes, the plant is best harvested in May or June as it is coming into flower and dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
|part used=Unknown part
+
This species merits further study for possible uses against kidney and urinary system ailments{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}.
|part used for=Oil}}{{Has part with material use
+
The juice of the nettle can be used as an antidote to stings from the leaves and an infusion of the fresh leaves is healing and soothing as a lotion for burns{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
|part used=Unknown part
+
The root has been shown to have a beneficial effect upon enlarged prostate glands{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
|part used for=Repellent}}{{Has part with material use
+
A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic gout, nettle rash and chickenpox, externally is applied to bruises{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used for=Waterproofing}}
+
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
Line 61: Line 135:
 
|part used for=Tonic
 
|part used for=Tonic
 
}}
 
}}
|sun=full sun
+
|toxicity notes=The leaves of the plants have stinging hairs, causing irritation to the skin{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. This action is neutralized by heat or by thorough drying, so the cooked leaves are perfectly safe and nutritious{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. However, only young leaves should be used because older leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths which act as an irritant to the kidneys{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}.
|shade=light shade
+
|toxic parts=
|water=moderate
+
|functions={{Plant functions as
|drought=intolerant
+
|function=Pest Repellent
|soil texture=sandy,loamy,clay
+
|details= The growing plant increases the essential oil content of other nearby plants, thus making them more resistant to insect pests{{Ref | PFAFimport-18}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-54}}.
|soil ph=acid,neutral,alkaline
+
}}
|wind=Yes
+
|shelter=
|poornutrition=No
+
|forage=
|life cycle=perennial
+
|grow from=seed
|growth rate=vigorous
+
|propagation=
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
Division succeeds at almost any time in the growing season. Very easy, plant them straight out into their permanent positions.
|mature height=1.2
+
|seed saving details=Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
|mature width=1
+
|germination details=Seed - sow spring in a cold frame, only just covering the seed. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and plant them out in the summer.
|flower type=dioecious
+
|seed requires stratification=No
|fertility=self sterile
+
|seed dormancy depth=
|pollinators=Wind
+
|seed requires scarification=No
 +
|seed requires smokification=No
 +
|rootstocks=
 +
|cultivation=Prefers a soil rich in phosphates and nitrogen. Plants must be grown in a deep rich soil if good quality fibre is required{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
 +
Nettles are one of the most undervalued of economic plants. They have a wide range of uses, for food, medicines, fibres etc and are also a very important plant for wildlife. There are at least 30 species of insects that feed on it and the caterpillars of several lepidoptera species are dependant upon it for food{{Ref | PFAFimport-30}}.  It is a good companion plant to grow in the orchard and amongst soft fruit{{Ref | PFAFimport-53}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-54}}. So long as it is not allowed to totally over-run the plants, it seems to improve the health of soft fruit that grows nearby and also to protect the fruit from birds, but it makes harvesting very difficult.
 +
 
 +
|crops=
 +
|problem notes=Especially when growing in rich soils, the plant can spread vigorously and is very difficult to eradicate. It is said that cutting the plant down three times a year for three years will kill it{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 +
|interactions=
 +
|ungrouped cultivars=
 
|botanical references=PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-200
 
|botanical references=PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-200
 
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-9,PFAFimport-12,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-36,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-244,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-201,PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-85,PFAFimport-5,PFAFimport-21,PFAFimport-200
 
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-9,PFAFimport-12,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-36,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-244,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-201,PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-85,PFAFimport-5,PFAFimport-21,PFAFimport-200
 
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-254,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-9,PFAFimport-21,PFAFimport-36,PFAFimport-165,PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-222
 
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-254,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-9,PFAFimport-21,PFAFimport-36,PFAFimport-165,PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-222
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-200,PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-6,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-36,PFAFimport-115,PFAFimport-99,PFAFimport-32,PFAFimport-12,PFAFimport-18,PFAFimport-20,PFAFimport-54,PFAFimport-14,PFAFimport-53,PFAFimport-172,PFAFimport-201
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-200,PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-6,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-36,PFAFimport-115,PFAFimport-99,PFAFimport-32,PFAFimport-12,PFAFimport-18,PFAFimport-20,PFAFimport-54,PFAFimport-14,PFAFimport-53,PFAFimport-172,PFAFimport-201
 
|cultivation=Prefers a soil rich in phosphates and nitrogen. Plants must be grown in a deep rich soil if good quality fibre is required{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
 
Nettles are one of the most undervalued of economic plants. They have a wide range of uses, for food, medicines, fibres etc and are also a very important plant for wildlife. There are at least 30 species of insects that feed on it and the caterpillars of several lepidoptera species are dependant upon it for food{{Ref | PFAFimport-30}}. Especially when growing in rich soils, the plant can spread vigorously and is very difficult to eradicate. It is said that cutting the plant down three times a year for three years will kill it{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. It is a good companion plant to grow in the orchard and amongst soft fruit{{Ref | PFAFimport-53}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-54}}. So long as it is not allowed to totally over-run the plants, it seems to improve the health of soft fruit that grows nearby and also to protect the fruit from birds, but it makes harvesting very difficult.
 
Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
 
|propagation=Seed - sow spring in a cold frame, only just covering the seed. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and plant them out in the summer.
 
Division succeeds at almost any time in the growing season. Very easy, plant them straight out into their permanent positions.
 
 
|range=Temperate regions throughout the world, including Britain.
 
|range=Temperate regions throughout the world, including Britain.
 
|habitat=Waste ground, hedgerows, woods etc, preferring a rich soil and avoiding acid soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
 
|habitat=Waste ground, hedgerows, woods etc, preferring a rich soil and avoiding acid soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
|toxicity notes=The leaves of the plants have stinging hairs, causing irritation to the skin{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. This action is neutralized by heat or by thorough drying, so the cooked leaves are perfectly safe and nutritious{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. However, only young leaves should be used because older leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths which act as an irritant to the kidneys{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}.
 
|material use notes=A strong flax-like fibre is obtained from the stems{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Used for making string and cloth{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-6}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-36}}, it also makes a good quality paper{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}. It is harvested as the plant begins to die down in early autumn and is retted before the fibres are extracted{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-99}}. The fibre is produced in less abundance than from flax (Linun usitatissimum) and is also more difficult to extract{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
The plant matter left over after the fibres have been extracted are a good source of biomass and have been used in the manufacture of sugar, starch, protein and ethyl alcohol{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
An oil obtained from the seeds is used as an illuminant{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
An essential ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator{{Ref | PFAFimport-32}}. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. The leaves are also an excellent addition to the compost heap{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-18}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}} and they can be soaked for 7 - 21 days in water to make a very nutritious liquid feed for plants{{Ref | PFAFimport-54}}. This liquid feed is both insect repellent and a good foliar feed{{Ref | PFAFimport-14}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-18}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-53}}.
 
The growing plant increases the essential oil content of other nearby plants, thus making them more resistant to insect pests{{Ref | PFAFimport-18}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-54}}.
 
Although many different species of insects feed on nettles, flies are repelled by the plant so a bunch of freshly cut stems has been used as a repellent in food cupboards{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
The juice of the plant, or a decoction formed by boiling the herb in a strong solution of salt, will curdle milks and thus acts as a rennet substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. This same juice, if rubbed into small seams of leaky wooden tubs, will coagulate and make the tub watertight again{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
A hair wash is made from the infused leaves and this is used as a tonic and antidandruff treatment{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-201}}.
 
A beautiful and permanent green dye is obtained from a decoction of the leaves and stems{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
 
A yellow dye is obtained from the root when boiled with alum{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
 
|edible use notes=Young leaves - cooked as a potherb and added to soups etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-36}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. They can also be dried for winter use{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}. Nettles are a very valuable addition to the diet{{Ref | PFAFimport-244}}, they are a very nutritious food that is easily digested and is high in minerals (especially iron) and vitamins (especially A and C){{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-201}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Only use young leaves (see the notes above on toxicity) and wear stout gloves when harvesting them to prevent being stung. Cooking the leaves, or thoroughly drying them, neutralizes the sting, rendering the leaf safe to eat{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-244}}. The young shoots, harvested in the spring when 15 - 20cm long complete with the underground stem are very nice{{Ref | PFAFimport-85}}. Old leaves can be laxative{{Ref | PFAFimport-5}}.
 
The plants are harvested commercially for extraction of the chlorophyll, which is used as a green colouring agent (E140) in foods and medicines{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
A tea is made from the dried leaves, it is warming on a winters day{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. A bland flavour, it can be added as a tonic to China tea{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
The juice of the leaves, or a decoction of the herb, can be used as a rennet substitute in curdling plant milks{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Nettle beer is brewed from the young shoots{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
|medicinal use notes=Nettles have a long history of use in the home as a herbal remedy and nutritious addition to the diet[K]. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used as a cleansing tonic and blood purifier so the plant is often used in the treatment of hay fever, arthritis, anaemia etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
The whole plant is antiasthmatic, antidandruff, astringent, depurative, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic, hypoglycaemic and a stimulating tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-36}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-165}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. An infusion of the plant is very valuable in stemming internal bleeding{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}, it is also used to treat anaemia, excessive menstruation, haemorrhoids, arthritis, rheumatism and skin complaints, especially eczema{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Externally, the plant is used to treat skin complaints, arthritic pain, gout, sciatica, neuralgia, haemorrhoids, hair problems etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
The fresh leaves of nettles have been rubbed or beaten onto the skin in the treatment of rheumatism etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. This practice, called urtification, causes intense irritation to the skin as it is stung by the nettles. It is believed that this treatment works in two ways. Firstly, it acts as a counter-irritant, bringing more blood to the area to help remove the toxins that cause rheumatism. Secondly, the formic acid from the nettles is believed to have a beneficial effect upon the rheumatic joints.
 
For medicinal purposes, the plant is best harvested in May or June as it is coming into flower and dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
This species merits further study for possible uses against kidney and urinary system ailments{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}.
 
The juice of the nettle can be used as an antidote to stings from the leaves and an infusion of the fresh leaves is healing and soothing as a lotion for burns{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
The root has been shown to have a beneficial effect upon enlarged prostate glands{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic gout, nettle rash and chickenpox, externally is applied to bruises{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|title irregular=No
 
|title irregular=No
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
{{References
 
{{References
|refs={{Reference|name=PFAFimport-1
+
|refs={{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-1
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1951-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-2
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-2
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
|date=1972-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-4
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-4
 
|author=Grieve.
 
|author=Grieve.
 
|title=A Modern Herbal.
 
|title=A Modern Herbal.
 
|publisher=Penguin
 
|publisher=Penguin
 
|id=ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
|date=1984-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-5
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-5
 
|author=Mabey. R.
 
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|title=Food for Free.
 
|title=Food for Free.
 
|publisher=Collins
 
|publisher=Collins
 
|id=ISBN 0-00-219060-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-00-219060-5
|date=1974-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-6
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
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|name=PFAFimport-6
 
|author=Mabey. R.
 
|author=Mabey. R.
 
|title=Plants with a Purpose.
 
|title=Plants with a Purpose.
 
|publisher=Fontana
 
|publisher=Fontana
 
|id=ISBN 0-00-635555-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-00-635555-2
|date=1979-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-9
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-9
 
|author=Launert. E.
 
|author=Launert. E.
 
|title=Edible and Medicinal Plants.
 
|title=Edible and Medicinal Plants.
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-37216-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-37216-2
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-12
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-12
 
|author=Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P.
 
|author=Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P.
 
|title=Britain's Wild Larder.
 
|title=Britain's Wild Larder.
 
|publisher=David and Charles
 
|publisher=David and Charles
 
|id=ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-13
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-13
 
|author=Triska. Dr.
 
|author=Triska. Dr.
 
|title=Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
 
|title=Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-33545-3
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-33545-3
|date=1975-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-14
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|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-14
 
|author=Holtom. J. and Hylton. W.
 
|author=Holtom. J. and Hylton. W.
 
|title=Complete Guide to Herbs.
 
|title=Complete Guide to Herbs.
 
|publisher=Rodale Press
 
|publisher=Rodale Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-87857-262-7
 
|id=ISBN 0-87857-262-7
|date=1979-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-18
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-18
 
|author=Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B.
 
|author=Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B.
 
|title=Companion Plants.
 
|title=Companion Plants.
 
|publisher=Watkins
 
|publisher=Watkins
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1979-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-20
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-20
 
|author=Riotte. L.
 
|author=Riotte. L.
 
|title=Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
 
|title=Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
 
|publisher=Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
 
|publisher=Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
 
|id=ISBN 0-88266-064-0
 
|id=ISBN 0-88266-064-0
|date=1978-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-21
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-21
 
|author=Lust. J.
 
|author=Lust. J.
 
|title=The Herb Book.
 
|title=The Herb Book.
 
|publisher=Bantam books
 
|publisher=Bantam books
 
|id=ISBN 0-553-23827-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-553-23827-2
|date=1983-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-30
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-30
 
|author=Carter D.
 
|author=Carter D.
 
|title=Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe.
 
|title=Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe.
 
|publisher=Pan
 
|publisher=Pan
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-26642-x
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-26642-x
|date=1982-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-32
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-32
 
|author=Bruce. M. E.
 
|author=Bruce. M. E.
 
|title=Commonsense Compost Making.
 
|title=Commonsense Compost Making.
 
|publisher=Faber
 
|publisher=Faber
 
|id=ISBN 0-571-09990-4
 
|id=ISBN 0-571-09990-4
|date=1977-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-36
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-36
 
|author=The Herb Society
 
|author=The Herb Society
 
|title=Herbal Review. Vol.11. 3.
 
|title=Herbal Review. Vol.11. 3.
 
|publisher=The Herb Society
 
|publisher=The Herb Society
 
|id=ISBN 0264-9853
 
|id=ISBN 0264-9853
|date=1986-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-53
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-53
 
|author=De. Bray. L.
 
|author=De. Bray. L.
 
|title=The Wild Garden.
 
|title=The Wild Garden.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-54
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-54
 
|author=Hatfield. A. W.
 
|author=Hatfield. A. W.
 
|title=How to Enjoy your Weeds.
 
|title=How to Enjoy your Weeds.
 
|publisher=Frederick Muller Ltd
 
|publisher=Frederick Muller Ltd
 
|id=ISBN 0-584-10141-4
 
|id=ISBN 0-584-10141-4
|date=1977-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-85
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-85
 
|author=Harrington. H. D.
 
|author=Harrington. H. D.
 
|title=Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains.
 
|title=Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains.
 
|publisher=University of New Mexico Press
 
|publisher=University of New Mexico Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-8623-0343-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-8623-0343-9
|date=1967-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-99
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-99
 
|author=Turner. N. J.
 
|author=Turner. N. J.
 
|title=Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology.
 
|title=Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology.
 
|publisher=British Columbia Provincial Museum
 
|publisher=British Columbia Provincial Museum
 
|id=ISBN 0-7718-8117-7
 
|id=ISBN 0-7718-8117-7
|date=1979-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-115
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-115
 
|author=Johnson. C. P.
 
|author=Johnson. C. P.
 
|title=The Useful Plants of Great Britain.
 
|title=The Useful Plants of Great Britain.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-165
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-165
 
|author=Mills. S. Y.
 
|author=Mills. S. Y.
 
|title=The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
 
|title=The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-172
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-172
 
|author=Schofield. J. J.
 
|author=Schofield. J. J.
 
|title=Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest.
 
|title=Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-183
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-183
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-200
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-200
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-201
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-201
 
|author=Allardice.P.
 
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|title=A - Z of Companion Planting.
 
|title=A - Z of Companion Planting.
 
|publisher=Cassell Publishers Ltd.
 
|publisher=Cassell Publishers Ltd.
 
|id=ISBN 0-304-34324-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-304-34324-2
|date=1993-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-222
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-222
 
|author=Foster. S. & Duke. J. A.
 
|author=Foster. S. & Duke. J. A.
 
|title=A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
 
|title=A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
 
|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Co.
 
|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Co.
 
|id=ISBN 0395467225
 
|id=ISBN 0395467225
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-238
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-238
 
|author=Bown. D.
 
|author=Bown. D.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley, London.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley, London.
 
|id=ISBN 0-7513-020-31
 
|id=ISBN 0-7513-020-31
|date=1995-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-244
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-244
 
|author=Phillips. R. & Foy. N.
 
|author=Phillips. R. & Foy. N.
 
|title=Herbs
 
|title=Herbs
 
|publisher=Pan Books Ltd. London.
 
|publisher=Pan Books Ltd. London.
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-30725-8
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-30725-8
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-254
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-254
 
|author=Chevallier. A.
 
|author=Chevallier. A.
 
|title=The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
 
|title=The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley. London
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley. London
 
|id=ISBN 9-780751-303148
 
|id=ISBN 9-780751-303148
|date=1996-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-257
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|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-257
 
|author=Moerman. D.
 
|author=Moerman. D.
 
|title=Native American Ethnobotany
 
|title=Native American Ethnobotany
 
|publisher=Timber Press. Oregon.
 
|publisher=Timber Press. Oregon.
 
|id=ISBN 0-88192-453-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-88192-453-9
|date=1998-00-00}}
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 +
|publisher=Wikipedia
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|date=2012/09/16
 +
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|type=website
 +
|name=nettlebeer
 +
|author=Wild food
 +
|title=Nettle Beer
 +
|publisher=Wild Foods
 +
|id=http://wild-foods.blogspot.com.es/2007/09/stinging-nettle-beer.html
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Revision as of 09:47, 16 September 2012

Uses

Toxic parts

The leaves of the plants have stinging hairs, causing irritation to the skin[13][14]. This action is neutralized by heat or by thorough drying, so the cooked leaves are perfectly safe and nutritious[14]. However, only young leaves should be used because older leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths which act as an irritant to the kidneys[23].

Edible uses

Material uses

Stem

Plant

Seeds

Oil

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Nettles have a long history of use in the home as a herbal remedy. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used as a cleansing tonic and blood purifier so the plant is often used in the treatment of hay fever, arthritis, anaemia etc[27]. The whole plant is antiasthmatic, antidandruff, astringent, depurative, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic, hypoglycaemic and a stimulating tonic[2][9][13][11][28][4]. An infusion of the plant is very valuable in stemming internal bleeding[2], it is also used to treat anaemia, excessive menstruation, haemorrhoids, arthritis, rheumatism and skin complaints, especially eczema[4]. Externally, the plant is used to treat skin complaints, arthritic pain, gout, sciatica, neuralgia, haemorrhoids, hair problems etc[4]. The fresh leaves of nettles have been rubbed or beaten onto the skin in the treatment of rheumatism etc[29]. This practice, called urtification, causes intense irritation to the skin as it is stung by the nettles. It is believed that this treatment works in two ways. Firstly, it acts as a counter-irritant, bringing more blood to the area to help remove the toxins that cause rheumatism. Secondly, the formic acid from the nettles is believed to have a beneficial effect upon the rheumatic joints. For medicinal purposes, the plant is best harvested in May or June as it is coming into flower and dried for later use[2][4]. This species merits further study for possible uses against kidney and urinary system ailments[30]. The juice of the nettle can be used as an antidote to stings from the leaves and an infusion of the fresh leaves is healing and soothing as a lotion for burns[2]. The root has been shown to have a beneficial effect upon enlarged prostate glands[27]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves[2]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic gout, nettle rash and chickenpox, externally is applied to bruises[2].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Herbaceous or Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Pest Repellent

The growing plant increases the essential oil content of other nearby plants, thus making them more resistant to insect pests[21][22][24].

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Division succeeds at almost any time in the growing season. Very easy, plant them straight out into their permanent positions.

Seed

Seed - sow spring in a cold frame, only just covering the seed. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and plant them out in the summer.


Cultivation

Prefers a soil rich in phosphates and nitrogen. Plants must be grown in a deep rich soil if good quality fibre is required[2][18]. Nettles are one of the most undervalued of economic plants. They have a wide range of uses, for food, medicines, fibres etc and are also a very important plant for wildlife. There are at least 30 species of insects that feed on it and the caterpillars of several lepidoptera species are dependant upon it for food[31]. It is a good companion plant to grow in the orchard and amongst soft fruit[26][24]. So long as it is not allowed to totally over-run the plants, it seems to improve the health of soft fruit that grows nearby and also to protect the fruit from birds, but it makes harvesting very difficult.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Urtica dioica. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Urtica dioica.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Urtica dioica
Genus
Urtica
Family
Urticaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Urtica dioica.jpeg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.122.132.142.152.162.172.182.192.20 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.74.8 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  5. ? [[1]] Wikipedia (2012/09/16)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (32202/01/01)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 The Herb Society Herbal Review. Vol.11. 3. The Herb Society ISBN 0264-9853 (32202/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.4 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  15. ? Wild food [Nettle Beer] Wild Foods (2012/09/16)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8623-0343-9 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (32202/01/01)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.4 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  19. ? 19.019.1 Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum ISBN 0-7718-8117-7 (32202/01/01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making. Faber ISBN 0-571-09990-4 (32202/01/01)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.3 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (32202/01/01)
  22. ? 22.022.122.2 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (32202/01/01)
  23. ? 23.023.123.2 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  24. ? 24.024.124.224.3 Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (32202/01/01)
  25. ? 25.025.1 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (32202/01/01)
  26. ? 26.026.126.2 De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. ()
  27. ? 27.027.127.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (32202/01/01)
  28. ? 28.028.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  29. ? 29.029.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (32202/01/01)
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