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(Adding article state template.)
 
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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|append to article summary=
 +
|article summary=
 
|primary image=Spartium junceum.jpg
 
|primary image=Spartium junceum.jpg
 
|common=Spanish Broom
 
|common=Spanish Broom
 
|binomial=Spartium junceum
 
|binomial=Spartium junceum
|family=Leguminosae
 
 
|genus=Spartium
 
|genus=Spartium
 +
|family=Leguminosae
 +
|life cycle=perennial
 +
|herbaceous or woody=woody
 +
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
 +
|flower type=hermaphrodite
 +
|growth rate=vigorous
 +
|mature height=3.5
 +
|mature width=3
 +
|sun=full sun
 +
|shade=no shade
 +
|hardiness zone=8
 +
|water=moderate
 +
|drought=tolerant
 +
|soil water retention=well drained
 +
|soil texture=sandy, loamy, clay
 +
|soil ph=acid, neutral, alkaline
 +
|wind=Yes
 +
|maritime=Yes
 +
|pollution=No
 +
|poornutrition=No
 +
|edible part and use=
 +
|material use notes=
 +
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Stem
 +
|part used for=Basketry
 +
|part use details=The smaller stems are used in basket making{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-160}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
|part used for=Basketry}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used for=Besom
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Flower
 +
|part used for=Dye, Essential, Oil
 +
|part use details=A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-148}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-169}}.
 +
An essential oil is obtained from the flowers, it is used in perfumery{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}. 1200kg of flowers yields 300 - 350gr
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
|part used for=Besom}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used for=Essential
|part used=Unknown part
+
}}{{Has part with material use
|part used for=Dye}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used=Branch
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used for=Thatching
|part used for=Essential}}{{Has part with material use
+
}}
|part used=Unknown part
+
|medicinal use notes=The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring, generally in May{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. They can be used fresh or dried and are cardiotonic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic and purgative{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}. The seeds can also be used{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. The plant is an efficacious and  potent diuretic{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}. This plant is 5 - 6 times more active than the medicinally similar Cytisus scoparius and should be used with caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach and cause purging{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
|part used for=Fibre}}
+
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
Line 26: Line 59:
 
|part used for=Purgative
 
|part used for=Purgative
 
}}
 
}}
|functions={{Plant functions as |
+
|toxic parts=
 
+
|functions={{Plant functions as
function=Nitrogen fixer}}
+
|function=Nitrogen fixer
|sun=full sun
+
}}
|shade=no shade
+
|shelter=
|hardiness zone=8
+
|forage=
|water=moderate
+
|propagation=Seed - pre-soak 24 hours in hot water and sow February/March in a greenhouse. It usually germinates well and quickly{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The seed can also be autumn sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant out in the summer, otherwise overwinter them in a cold frame and plant out in late spring of the following year.
|drought=tolerant
+
|seed requires stratification=No
|soil water retention=well drained
+
|seed dormancy depth=
|soil texture=sandy,loamy,clay
+
|seed requires scarification=No
|soil ph=acid,neutral,alkaline
+
|seed requires smokification=No
|wind=Yes
+
|rootstocks=
|maritime=Yes
+
|poornutrition=No
+
|life cycle=perennial
+
|herbaceous or woody=woody
+
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
+
|growth rate=vigorous
+
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
|mature height=3.5
+
|mature width=3
+
|flower type=hermaphrodite
+
|pollinators=Insects
+
|botanical references=PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-200
+
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-89
+
|material uses references=PFAFimport-148,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-61,PFAFimport-89,PFAFimport-160,PFAFimport-169,PFAFimport-46
+
 
+
 
|cultivation=Succeeds in any well-drained but not too fertile soil in a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers a lime free soil according to one report{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}} whilst another says that it thrives on alkaline and poor sandy soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Very wind resistant, tolerating maritime exposure{{Ref | PFAFimport-166}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Tolerates atmospheric pollution{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}} and thrives on hot dry banks{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-166}}.
 
|cultivation=Succeeds in any well-drained but not too fertile soil in a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers a lime free soil according to one report{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}} whilst another says that it thrives on alkaline and poor sandy soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Very wind resistant, tolerating maritime exposure{{Ref | PFAFimport-166}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Tolerates atmospheric pollution{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}} and thrives on hot dry banks{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-166}}.
 
A very ornamental plant, it is hardy to between -10 and -18°c when in a suitable position{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
A very ornamental plant, it is hardy to between -10 and -18°c when in a suitable position{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
Line 60: Line 78:
 
Rabbits love eating this plant when it is young[1, K].
 
Rabbits love eating this plant when it is young[1, K].
 
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|propagation=Seed - pre-soak 24 hours in hot water and sow February/March in a greenhouse. It usually germinates well and quickly{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The seed can also be autumn sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant out in the summer, otherwise overwinter them in a cold frame and plant out in late spring of the following year.
+
|crops=
 +
|interactions=
 +
|botanical references=PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-200
 +
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-89
 +
|material uses references=PFAFimport-148,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-61,PFAFimport-89,PFAFimport-160,PFAFimport-169,PFAFimport-46
 
|range=S. Europe to N. Africa. Naturalized in S. Britain{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 
|range=S. Europe to N. Africa. Naturalized in S. Britain{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 
|habitat=Dry situations amongst rocks and in bushy places, usually on limestone soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-45}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-148}}.
 
|habitat=Dry situations amongst rocks and in bushy places, usually on limestone soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-45}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-148}}.
|material use notes=A fibre from the stems is a hemp substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-148}}. It is used to make thread, cordage and coarse fabrics{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-160}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-169}}. It is also used for stuffing pillows etc and for making paper{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}.
 
The smaller stems are used in basket making{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-160}}. The branches are often made into brooms{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}.
 
A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-148}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-169}}.
 
An essential oil is obtained from the flowers, it is used in perfumery{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}. 1200kg of flowers yields 300 - 350gr absolute{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}.
 
|medicinal use notes=The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring, generally in May{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. They can be used fresh or dried and are cardiotonic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic and purgative{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}. The seeds can also be used{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. The plant is an efficacious and  potent diuretic{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}. This plant is 5 - 6 times more active than the medicinally similar Cytisus scoparius and should be used with caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach and cause purging{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}.
 
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|title irregular=No
 
|title irregular=No
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
{{References
 
{{References
|refs={{Reference|name=PFAFimport-1
+
|refs={{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-1
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1951-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-4
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-4
 
|author=Grieve.
 
|author=Grieve.
 
|title=A Modern Herbal.
 
|title=A Modern Herbal.
 
|publisher=Penguin
 
|publisher=Penguin
 
|id=ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
|date=1984-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-7
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-7
 
|author=Chiej. R.
 
|author=Chiej. R.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
 
|publisher=MacDonald
 
|publisher=MacDonald
 
|id=ISBN 0-356-10541-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-356-10541-5
|date=1984-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-11
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-11
 
|author=Bean. W.
 
|author=Bean. W.
 
|title=Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
 
|title=Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|publisher=Murray
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-17
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-17
 
|author=Clapham, Tootin and Warburg.
 
|author=Clapham, Tootin and Warburg.
 
|title=Flora of the British Isles.
 
|title=Flora of the British Isles.
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1962-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-45
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-45
 
|author=Polunin. O.
 
|author=Polunin. O.
 
|title=Flowers of Greece and the Balkans.
 
|title=Flowers of Greece and the Balkans.
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-19-217626-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-19-217626-9
|date=1980-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-46
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-46
 
|author=Uphof. J. C. Th.
 
|author=Uphof. J. C. Th.
 
|title=Dictionary of Economic Plants.
 
|title=Dictionary of Economic Plants.
 
|publisher=Weinheim
 
|publisher=Weinheim
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1959-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-61
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-61
 
|author=Usher. G.
 
|author=Usher. G.
 
|title=A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
 
|title=A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
 
|publisher=Constable
 
|publisher=Constable
 
|id=ISBN 0094579202
 
|id=ISBN 0094579202
|date=1974-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-78
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-78
 
|author=Sheat. W. G.
 
|author=Sheat. W. G.
 
|title=Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
 
|title=Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
 
|publisher=MacMillan and Co
 
|publisher=MacMillan and Co
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1948-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-89
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-89
 
|author=Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
 
|author=Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
 
|title=Flowers of the Mediterranean.
 
|title=Flowers of the Mediterranean.
 
|publisher=Hogarth Press
 
|publisher=Hogarth Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-7012-0784-1
 
|id=ISBN 0-7012-0784-1
|date=1987-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-148
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-148
 
|author=Niebuhr. A. D.
 
|author=Niebuhr. A. D.
 
|title=Herbs of Greece.
 
|title=Herbs of Greece.
 
|publisher=Herb Society of America.
 
|publisher=Herb Society of America.
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1970-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-160
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-160
 
|author=Natural Food Institute,
 
|author=Natural Food Institute,
 
|title=Wonder Crops. 1987.
 
|title=Wonder Crops. 1987.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-166
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-166
 
|author=Taylor. J.
 
|author=Taylor. J.
 
|title=The Milder Garden.
 
|title=The Milder Garden.
 
|publisher=Dent
 
|publisher=Dent
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-169
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-169
 
|author=Buchanan. R.
 
|author=Buchanan. R.
 
|title=A Weavers Garden.
 
|title=A Weavers Garden.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-188
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-188
 
|author=Brickell. C.
 
|author=Brickell. C.
 
|title=The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
 
|title=The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
 
|id=ISBN 0-86318-386-7
 
|id=ISBN 0-86318-386-7
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-200
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-200
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-245
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-245
 
|author=Genders. R.
 
|author=Genders. R.
 
|title=Scented Flora of the World.
 
|title=Scented Flora of the World.
 
|publisher=Robert Hale. London.
 
|publisher=Robert Hale. London.
 
|id=ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
 
|id=ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
|date=1994-00-00}}
+
|date=32202/01/01
}}{{Article state
+
}}
 +
}}
 +
{{Article state
 
|article cleanup=Yes
 
|article cleanup=Yes
 
|article incomplete=Yes
 
|article incomplete=Yes
 
|article citations=No
 
|article citations=No
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 16:43, 31 October 2012

Uses

Edible uses

There are no edible uses listed for Spartium junceum.

Material uses

Stem

Unknown part

Flower

Branch

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring, generally in May[8]. They can be used fresh or dried and are cardiotonic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic and purgative[8][1][4]. The seeds can also be used[8]. The plant is an efficacious and potent diuretic[1]. This plant is 5 - 6 times more active than the medicinally similar Cytisus scoparius and should be used with caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach and cause purging[8].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - pre-soak 24 hours in hot water and sow February/March in a greenhouse. It usually germinates well and quickly[9][10]. The seed can also be autumn sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[10]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant out in the summer, otherwise overwinter them in a cold frame and plant out in late spring of the following year.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Spartium junceum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in any well-drained but not too fertile soil in a sunny position[10]. Prefers a lime free soil according to one report[11] whilst another says that it thrives on alkaline and poor sandy soils[10]. Very wind resistant, tolerating maritime exposure[12][10]. Tolerates atmospheric pollution[10] and thrives on hot dry banks[13][12]. A very ornamental plant, it is hardy to between -10 and -18°c when in a suitable position[10]. The flowers have a fragrance that has been likened to oranges[14]. Plants can become leggy if grown in a sheltered position or too rich a soil[10], but they can be pruned almost to the ground and will resprout from the base[K]. They can also be trimmed in early spring in order to keep them more compact[15]. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance, they are best grown in pots and planted out into their permanent positions whilst still small[13]. Plants often self-sow in Britain[11]. Rabbits love eating this plant when it is young[1, K]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[10].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Spartium junceum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Spartium junceum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Spartium junceum
Genus
Spartium
Family
Leguminosae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
3.5 x 3
Fertility
?
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

"image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Spartium junceum.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (32202/01/01)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
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