(Adding primary image from WikiSpecies.)
(Fixed from PFAF)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|override summary=Append
 +
|append to article summary=It is a great plant for hedges and makes a delicious astringent fruit often used to make a flavoured gin.
 +
|article summary=
 
|primary image=Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg
 
|primary image=Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg
|cultivation=Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Succeeds in all soils except very acid peats{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on limestone{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Prefers some chalk in the soil but apt to become chlorotic if too much is present{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}. Thrives on chalk according to another report{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}}. Plants are very resistant to maritime exposure{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 
An important food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterfly{{Ref | PFAFimport-30}}, especially the larvae of the brown and black hairstreak butterflies{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}. A good bee plant.
 
Plants are shallow-rooted and of a suckering habit, they can form dense impenetrable thickets which are ideal for nesting birds, especially nightingales{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 
Flowers are often damaged by late frosts{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 
Plants regenerate quickly after cutting or after fast moving forest fires, producing suckers from below ground level{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus{{Ref | PFAFimport-88}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
|propagation=Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.
 
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame.
 
Layering in spring.
 
Division of suckers during the dormant season. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.
 
|range=Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to the Mediterranean, Siberia and Iran.
 
|habitat=Hedgerows and woods, usually in sunny positions, on all soils except acid peats{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 
|toxicity notes=Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
 
|material use notes=The bark is a good source of tannin{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}. It is used to make an ink{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}.
 
The juice of unripe fruits is used as a laundry mark{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}, it is almost indelible{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
 
The pulped ripe fruit is used cosmetically in making astringent face-masks{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}.
 
A green dye can be obtained from the leaves{{Ref | PFAFimport-168}}.
 
A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit{{Ref | PFAFimport-168}}.
 
The bark, boiled in an alkali, produces a yellow dye{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}.
 
The sloe is very resistant to maritime exposure and also suckers freely. It can be used as a hedge in exposed maritime positions. The hedge is stock-proof if it is well maintained{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-29}}, though it is rather bare in the winter and, unless the hedge is rather wide, it is not a very good shelter at this time[K]. Because of its suckering habit, the plant is a natural pioneer species, invading cultivated fields and creating conditions conducive to the regeneration of woodland.
 
Wood - very hard. Used for turnery, the teeth of rakes etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}. Suitable branches are used for making walking sticks and are highly valued for this purpose because of their twisted and interesting shapes{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}.
 
|edible use notes=Fruit - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-5}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-34}}. Exceedingly astringent, it is normally cooked but once the fruit has been frosted it loses some of its astringency and some people find they can enjoy it raw[183, K]. The fruit is more usually used in jellies, syrups, conserves etc and as a flavouring for sloe gin and other liqueurs{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Some fruits that we ate in December were fairly pleasant raw[K]. In France the unripe fruit is pickled like an olive{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter and contains one large seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Seed - raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter - see the notes above on toxicity.
 
The leaves are used as a tea substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The dried fruits can be added to herbal teas{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
The flowers are edible and can be crystallised or sugared{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
|medicinal use notes=The flowers, bark, leaves and fruits are aperient, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative and stomachic{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}. An infusion of the flowers is used in the treatment of diarrhoea (especially for children), bladder and kidney disorders, stomach weakness et{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
 
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
|title irregular=No
 
 
|common=Sloe
 
|common=Sloe
 
|binomial=Prunus spinosa
 
|binomial=Prunus spinosa
 +
|genus=Prunus
 
|family=Rosaceae
 
|family=Rosaceae
|genus=Prunus
+
|common habit description=Tree, Shrub
 +
|common use description=Fruit
 +
|botanical description=Prunus spinosa is a deciduous large shrub or small tree growing to 5 m tall, with blackish bark and dense, stiff, spiny branches. The leaves are oval, 2–4.5 cm long and 1.2–2 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The flowers are 1.5 cm diameter, with five creamy-white petals; they are produced shortly before the leaves in early spring, and are hermaphroditic and insect-pollinated. The fruit, called a "sloe", is a drupe 10–12 millimetres (0.39–0.47 in) in diameter, black with a purple-blue waxy bloom, ripening in autumn, and harvested—traditionally, at least in the UK, in October or November after the first frosts. Sloes are thin-fleshed, with a very strongly astringent flavour when fresh{{Ref|collins}}
 +
|life cycle=perennial
 +
|herbaceous or woody=woody
 +
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
 +
|flower type=hermaphrodite
 +
|flower colour=white
 +
|pollinators=insects
 +
|fertility=self fertile
 +
|growth rate=moderate
 +
|mature measurement unit=metres
 +
|mature height=3
 +
|mature width=1
 +
|sun=full sun
 +
|shade=light shade
 +
|hardiness zone=4
 +
|water=moderate
 +
|drought=intolerant
 +
|soil water retention=well drained
 +
|soil texture=sandy, loamy, clay
 +
|soil ph=acid, neutral, alkaline, very alkaline
 +
|wind=Yes
 +
|maritime=Yes
 +
|pollution=No
 +
|poornutrition=No
 +
|ecosystem niche=Secondary canopy, Shrub
 +
|root zone=shallow
 +
|edible use notes=
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Fruit
 +
|part used for=Fresh,Cooked,Jam,Drink,Alchohol,Tea
 +
|part use details=Exceedingly astringent, it is normally cooked but once the fruit has been frosted it loses some of its astringency and some people find they can enjoy it raw{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-5}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-12}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-34}}. The fruit is more usually used in jellies, syrups, conserves etc and as a flavouring for sloe gin and other liqueurs{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Some fruits that we ate in December were fairly pleasant raw[K]. In France the unripe fruit is pickled like an olive{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter and contains one large seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.  The dried fruits can be added to herbal teas{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Flowers
 
|part used=Flowers
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Sugared
|part used=Fruit
+
|part use details=The flowers are edible and can be crystallised or sugared{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Seed
 
|part used=Seed
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Fresh,Cooked
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter - see the notes above on toxicity.
|part used for=Tea}}
+
}}{{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Leaves
 +
|part used for=Tea
 +
|part use details=The leaves are used as a tea substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
}}
 +
|material use notes=
 +
 
 +
 
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Fruit
|part used for=Cosmetic}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used for=Cosmetic
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=The pulped ripe fruit is used cosmetically in making astringent face-masks{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}.  The juice of unripe fruits is used as a laundry mark{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}, it is almost indelible{{Ref | PFAFimport-115}}.
|part used for=Dye}}{{Has part with material use
+
}}{{Has part with material use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Leaves
|part used for=Ink}}{{Has part with material use
+
|part used for=Dye
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=A green dye can be obtained from the leaves{{Ref | PFAFimport-168}}.
|part used for=Tannin}}{{Has part with material use
+
}}{{Has part with material use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Bark
|part used for=Wood}}
+
|part used for=Tannin,Ink
 +
|part use details=The bark is a good source of tannin{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}. It is used to make an ink{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Fruit
 +
|part used for=Dye
 +
|part use details=A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit{{Ref | PFAFimport-168}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with material use
 +
|part used=Wood
 +
|part used for=Walking Sticks,Turnery,Carpentry
 +
|part use details=Wood - very hard. Used for turnery, the teeth of rakes etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-13}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-66}}. Suitable branches are used for making walking sticks and are highly valued for this purpose because of their twisted and interesting shapes{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}.
 +
}}
 +
|medicinal use notes=The flowers, bark, leaves and fruits are aperient, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative and stomachic{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}. An infusion of the flowers is used in the treatment of diarrhoea (especially for children), bladder and kidney disorders, stomach weakness et{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
 +
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
Line 79: Line 108:
 
|part used for=Stomachic
 
|part used for=Stomachic
 
}}
 
}}
 +
|toxicity notes=Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
 +
|toxic parts=
 +
|functions={{Plant functions as
 +
|function=Hedge
 +
|details=The sloe is very resistant to maritime exposure and also suckers freely. It can be used as a hedge in exposed maritime positions. The hedge is stock-proof if it is well maintained{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-29}}, though it is rather bare in the winter and, unless the hedge is rather wide, it is not a very good shelter at this time.
 +
}}{{Plant functions as
 +
|function=Pioneer
 +
|details=Because of its suckering habit, the plant is a natural pioneer species, invading cultivated fields and creating conditions conducive to the regeneration of woodland.
 +
}}
 +
|shelter=
 +
|forage=
 +
|grow from=seed, cutting, layering
 +
|propagation=
 +
 +
Layering in spring.
 +
Division of suckers during the dormant season. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.
 +
|germination details=Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.
 +
|seed requires stratification=No
 +
|seed dormancy depth=
 +
|seed requires scarification=No
 +
|seed requires smokification=No
 +
|cutting type=soft wood, semi-ripe
 +
|cutting details=Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 +
Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame.
 +
|rootstocks=
 +
|cultivation=Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Succeeds in all soils except very acid peats{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on limestone{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Prefers some chalk in the soil but apt to become chlorotic if too much is present{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}. Thrives on chalk according to another report{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}}. Plants are very resistant to maritime exposure{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 +
An important food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterfly{{Ref | PFAFimport-30}}, especially the larvae of the brown and black hairstreak butterflies{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}. A good bee plant.
 +
Plants are shallow-rooted and of a suckering habit, they can form dense impenetrable thickets which are ideal for nesting birds, especially nightingales{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 +
Flowers are often damaged by late frosts{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 +
Plants regenerate quickly after cutting or after fast moving forest fires, producing suckers from below ground level{{Ref | PFAFimport-186}}.
 +
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus{{Ref | PFAFimport-88}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 +
|crop notes=The fruit is similar to a small damson or plum, suitable for preserves, but rather tart and astringent for eating, unless it is picked after the first few days of autumn frost. Some have reported that this effect can be reproduced by freezing harvested sloes{{ref|celticrambler}}, although it is understood that it is the result of the plant withdrawing tannins from the sloes in freezing weather.{{ref|wiki}}
 +
|crops=
 +
|interactions=
 +
|range=Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to the Mediterranean, Siberia and Iran.
 +
|habitat=Hedgerows and woods, usually in sunny positions, on all soils except acid peats{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 +
|title irregular=No
 
|functions as=Hedge,Pioneer
 
|functions as=Hedge,Pioneer
|sun=full sun
 
|shade=light shade
 
|hardiness zone=4
 
|water=moderate
 
|drought=intolerant
 
|soil water retention=well drained
 
|soil texture=sandy,loamy,clay
 
|soil ph=acid,neutral,alkaline,very alkaline
 
|wind=Yes
 
|maritime=Yes
 
|poornutrition=No
 
|life cycle=perennial
 
|herbaceous or woody=woody
 
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
 
|growth rate=moderate
 
|mature measurement unit=meters
 
|mature height=3
 
|flower type=hermaphrodite
 
|pollinators=Insects
 
 
|botanical references=PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-200
 
|botanical references=PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-200
 
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-5,PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-12,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-34,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-200
 
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-5,PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-12,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-34,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-200
Line 104: Line 151:
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-66,PFAFimport-115,PFAFimport-168,PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-29,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-46
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-7,PFAFimport-66,PFAFimport-115,PFAFimport-168,PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-29,PFAFimport-13,PFAFimport-46
 
}}
 
}}
{{Article state
+
 
|article incomplete=Yes
+
}}
+
 
{{References
 
{{References
|refs={{Reference|name=PFAFimport-1
+
|refs={{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-1
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1951-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-2
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-2
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
|date=1972-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-5
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-5
 
|author=Mabey. R.
 
|author=Mabey. R.
 
|title=Food for Free.
 
|title=Food for Free.
 
|publisher=Collins
 
|publisher=Collins
 
|id=ISBN 0-00-219060-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-00-219060-5
|date=1974-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-7
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-7
 
|author=Chiej. R.
 
|author=Chiej. R.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
 
|publisher=MacDonald
 
|publisher=MacDonald
 
|id=ISBN 0-356-10541-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-356-10541-5
|date=1984-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-9
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-9
 
|author=Launert. E.
 
|author=Launert. E.
 
|title=Edible and Medicinal Plants.
 
|title=Edible and Medicinal Plants.
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-37216-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-37216-2
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-11
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-11
 
|author=Bean. W.
 
|author=Bean. W.
 
|title=Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
 
|title=Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|publisher=Murray
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-12
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-12
 
|author=Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P.
 
|author=Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P.
 
|title=Britain's Wild Larder.
 
|title=Britain's Wild Larder.
 
|publisher=David and Charles
 
|publisher=David and Charles
 
|id=ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-13
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-13
 
|author=Triska. Dr.
 
|author=Triska. Dr.
 
|title=Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
 
|title=Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-33545-3
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-33545-3
|date=1975-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-17
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-17
 
|author=Clapham, Tootin and Warburg.
 
|author=Clapham, Tootin and Warburg.
 
|title=Flora of the British Isles.
 
|title=Flora of the British Isles.
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1962-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-21
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-21
 
|author=Lust. J.
 
|author=Lust. J.
 
|title=The Herb Book.
 
|title=The Herb Book.
 
|publisher=Bantam books
 
|publisher=Bantam books
 
|id=ISBN 0-553-23827-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-553-23827-2
|date=1983-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-29
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-29
 
|author=Shepherd. F.W.
 
|author=Shepherd. F.W.
 
|title=Hedges and Screens.
 
|title=Hedges and Screens.
 
|publisher=Royal Horticultural Society.
 
|publisher=Royal Horticultural Society.
 
|id=ISBN 0900629649
 
|id=ISBN 0900629649
|date=1974-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-30
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-30
 
|author=Carter D.
 
|author=Carter D.
 
|title=Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe.
 
|title=Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe.
 
|publisher=Pan
 
|publisher=Pan
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-26642-x
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-26642-x
|date=1982-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-34
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-34
 
|author=Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G.
 
|author=Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G.
 
|title=The Oxford Book of Food Plants.
 
|title=The Oxford Book of Food Plants.
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1975-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-46
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-46
 
|author=Uphof. J. C. Th.
 
|author=Uphof. J. C. Th.
 
|title=Dictionary of Economic Plants.
 
|title=Dictionary of Economic Plants.
 
|publisher=Weinheim
 
|publisher=Weinheim
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1959-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-66
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-66
 
|author=Freethy. R.
 
|author=Freethy. R.
 
|title=From Agar to Zenery.
 
|title=From Agar to Zenery.
 
|publisher=The Crowood Press
 
|publisher=The Crowood Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-946284-51-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-946284-51-2
|date=1985-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-88
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-88
 
|author=RHS.
 
|author=RHS.
 
|title=The Garden. Volume 112.
 
|title=The Garden. Volume 112.
 
|publisher=Royal Horticultural Society
 
|publisher=Royal Horticultural Society
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1987-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-113
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-113
 
|author=Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
 
|author=Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
 
|title=The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
 
|title=The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
 
|publisher=Athens Ga. Varsity Press
 
|publisher=Athens Ga. Varsity Press
 
|id=ISBN 0942375009
 
|id=ISBN 0942375009
|date=1987-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-115
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-115
 
|author=Johnson. C. P.
 
|author=Johnson. C. P.
 
|title=The Useful Plants of Great Britain.
 
|title=The Useful Plants of Great Britain.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-168
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-168
 
|author=Grae. I.
 
|author=Grae. I.
 
|title=Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants.
 
|title=Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Publishing Co. New York.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Publishing Co. New York.
 
|id=ISBN 0-02-544950-8
 
|id=ISBN 0-02-544950-8
|date=1974-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-182
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-182
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|title=Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
 
|title=Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|id=ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-183
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-183
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-186
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-186
 
|author=Beckett. G. and K.
 
|author=Beckett. G. and K.
 
|title=Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
 
|title=Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
 
|publisher=Jarrold
 
|publisher=Jarrold
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1979-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-200
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-200
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-238
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-238
 
|author=Bown. D.
 
|author=Bown. D.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley, London.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley, London.
 
|id=ISBN 0-7513-020-31
 
|id=ISBN 0-7513-020-31
|date=1995-00-00}}
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 +
|type=book
 +
|name=collins
 +
|author=Collins Edition
 +
|title=Collins Tree Guide
 +
|publisher=Collins
 +
}}{{Reference
 +
|type=website
 +
|name=wiki
 +
|author=Wikipedia
 +
|publisher=Wikipedia
 +
|id=www.wikipedia.org
 +
|date=2012/08/07
 +
}}{{Reference
 +
|type=website
 +
|name=celticrambler
 +
|publisher=Celtic Rambler
 +
|id=http://www.celticrambler.co.uk/bushcraft/how-to-prepare-sloes-for-eating/
 +
|date=2012/08/07
 +
}}
 +
}}
 +
{{Article state
 +
|article cleanup=No
 +
|article incomplete=No
 +
|article citations=No
 
}}
 
}}

Revision as of 13:46, 7 August 2012

Botanical description

Prunus spinosa is a deciduous large shrub or small tree growing to 5 m tall, with blackish bark and dense, stiff, spiny branches. The leaves are oval, 2?4.5 cm long and 1.2?2 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The flowers are 1.5 cm diameter, with five creamy-white petals; they are produced shortly before the leaves in early spring, and are hermaphroditic and insect-pollinated. The fruit, called a "sloe", is a drupe 10?12 millimetres (0.39?0.47 in) in diameter, black with a purple-blue waxy bloom, ripening in autumn, and harvested?traditionally, at least in the UK, in October or November after the first frosts. Sloes are thin-fleshed, with a very strongly astringent flavour when fresh[15]

Uses

Toxic parts

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Edible uses

Flowers

Seed

Fresh, Cooked

Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter - see the notes above on toxicity.

Leaves

Tea

Material uses

Fruit

Leaves

Dye

Bark

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The flowers, bark, leaves and fruits are aperient, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative and stomachic[3][16][17]. An infusion of the flowers is used in the treatment of diarrhoea (especially for children), bladder and kidney disorders, stomach weakness et[16]. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being[18].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy or Shrub

Ecological Functions

Hedge

The sloe is very resistant to maritime exposure and also suckers freely. It can be used as a hedge in exposed maritime positions. The hedge is stock-proof if it is well maintained[13][19], though it is rather bare in the winter and, unless the hedge is rather wide, it is not a very good shelter at this time.

Pioneer

Because of its suckering habit, the plant is a natural pioneer species, invading cultivated fields and creating conditions conducive to the regeneration of woodland.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Layering in spring. Division of suckers during the dormant season. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Seed

Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[9]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible[9]. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate[20]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.

Rooted cuttings

Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame[4][9]. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame.


Cultivation

Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil[4]. Succeeds in all soils except very acid peats[21]. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny position[4][9]. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on limestone[4]. Prefers some chalk in the soil but apt to become chlorotic if too much is present[13]. Thrives on chalk according to another report[22]. Plants are very resistant to maritime exposure[21]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of several species of butterfly[23], especially the larvae of the brown and black hairstreak butterflies[21]. A good bee plant. Plants are shallow-rooted and of a suckering habit, they can form dense impenetrable thickets which are ideal for nesting birds, especially nightingales[21]. Flowers are often damaged by late frosts[21]. Plants regenerate quickly after cutting or after fast moving forest fires, producing suckers from below ground level[21]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[24][9].

Crops

The fruit is similar to a small damson or plum, suitable for preserves, but rather tart and astringent for eating, unless it is picked after the first few days of autumn frost. Some have reported that this effect can be reproduced by freezing harvested sloes[25], although it is understood that it is the result of the plant withdrawing tannins from the sloes in freezing weather.[26]

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Prunus spinosa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Prunus spinosa.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Prunus spinosa
Genus
Prunus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
3 x 1 metres
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
white
Flower Type

"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.8 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (32202/01/01)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  15. ? Collins Edition Collins Tree Guide Collins ()
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (32202/01/01)
  20. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (32202/01/01)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.321.421.5 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (32202/01/01)
  22. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (32202/01/01)
  23. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (32202/01/01)
  24. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (32202/01/01)
  25. ? [[1]] Celtic Rambler (2012/08/07)
  26. ? Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia (2012/08/07)
  27. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)



"image:Illustration Prunus spinosa1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.