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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|primary image=Doğu ladini-1.jpg
 
|common=Caucasian Spruce
 
|common=Caucasian Spruce
 
|binomial=Picea orientalis
 
|binomial=Picea orientalis
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|life cycle=perennial
 
|life cycle=perennial
 
|herbaceous or woody=woody
 
|herbaceous or woody=woody
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
+
|deciduous or evergreen=evergreen
|growth rate=vigorous
+
||growth rate=vigorous
 
|mature measurement unit=meters
 
|mature measurement unit=meters
 
|mature height=20
 
|mature height=20
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|material uses references=PFAFimport-74,PFAFimport-171
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-74,PFAFimport-171
  
|cultivation=Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Tolerates poor peaty soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Succeeds in wet cold  and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Dislikes shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Resists wind exposure to some degree{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|cultivation notes=
 +
|PFAF cultivation notes=Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Tolerates poor peaty soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Succeeds in wet cold  and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Dislikes shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Resists wind exposure to some degree{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. There are a number of named forms selected for their ornamental value, most of these are dwarf cultivars{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. There are a number of named forms selected for their ornamental value, most of these are dwarf cultivars{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
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Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
The bruised leaves have a resinous aroma{{Ref | PFAFimport-245}}.
 
The bruised leaves have a resinous aroma{{Ref | PFAFimport-245}}.
|propagation=Seed - stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible{{Ref | PFAFimport-80}}. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. A position in light shade is probably best{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place{{Ref | PFAFimport-80}}. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts.
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible{{Ref | PFAFimport-80}}. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. A position in light shade is probably best{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place{{Ref | PFAFimport-80}}. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts.
 
Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
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|range=E. Europe to W. Asia.
 
|range=E. Europe to W. Asia.
 
|habitat=Found in pure stands or mixed with beech, pine and hornbeam, especially on shaded slopes, preferring deep protected ravines with adequate soil moisture at elevations of 300 - 2100 metres{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
|habitat=Found in pure stands or mixed with beech, pine and hornbeam, especially on shaded slopes, preferring deep protected ravines with adequate soil moisture at elevations of 300 - 2100 metres{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
|material use notes=Tannin is obtained from the bark{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
+
|material use notes=
 +
|PFAF material use notes=Tannin is obtained from the bark{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
Turpentine is obtained from the bark and branches{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
Turpentine is obtained from the bark and branches{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
Wood - soft, white, easily cleaves, light, durable, has a good resonance. Used for construction, furniture etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}. It is also valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper{{Ref | PFAFimport-171}}.
 
Wood - soft, white, easily cleaves, light, durable, has a good resonance. Used for construction, furniture etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}. It is also valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper{{Ref | PFAFimport-171}}.
|edible use notes=Young male catkins - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}.
+
|edible use notes=
 +
|PFAF edible use notes=Young male catkins - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}.
 
Immature female cones - cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}.
 
Immature female cones - cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}.
 
Inner bark - dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails.
 
Inner bark - dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread{{Ref | PFAFimport-172}}. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails.
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|id=ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
 
|id=ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
 
|date=1994-00-00}}
 
|date=1994-00-00}}
 +
}}{{Article state
 +
|article cleanup=Yes
 +
|article incomplete=Yes
 +
|article citations=No
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 14:15, 4 May 2013

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Young male catkins - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring[1].

Immature female cones - cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy[1]. Inner bark - dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread[1]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails. Seed - raw. Too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are desperate[1].

A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot tips[1].

Flowers

Inner bark

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

Tannin is obtained from the bark[2].

Turpentine is obtained from the bark and branches[2].

Wood - soft, white, easily cleaves, light, durable, has a good resonance. Used for construction, furniture etc[2]. It is also valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper[3].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

There are no medicinal uses listed for Picea orientalis.

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible[4]. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame[5]. A position in light shade is probably best[5]. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place[4]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts.

Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring[5]. Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months[5].

Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but sure.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Picea orientalis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil[6]. Tolerates poor peaty soils[7]. Succeeds in wet cold and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils[8]. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6[7]. Dislikes shade[7]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[6]. Resists wind exposure to some degree[7].

In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain[7]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[7]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[7]. There are a number of named forms selected for their ornamental value, most of these are dwarf cultivars[7]. Young trees are slow growing at first but from the age of about 5 - 6 years they can grow up to 1 metre a year and this can be maintained for the next 70 years or so. Growth virtually ceases by the time the tree is 90 - 100 years old[9]. Increases in girth follow the same pattern as height increases[9]. Trees probably do not live much longer than 100 years in Britain[9]. They are occasionally planted on a small scale in Europe as a timber tree[10]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[7].

The bruised leaves have a resinous aroma[11].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Picea orientalis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Picea orientalis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Picea orientalis
Genus
Picea
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    20 x 5 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.87.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    8. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
    10. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
    11. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)

    "image:Do?u ladini-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.