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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|primary image=Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg
 
|common=Chinese Peony
 
|common=Chinese Peony
 
|binomial=Paeonia lactiflora
 
|binomial=Paeonia lactiflora
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|edible uses references=PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-46,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-177
 
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-46,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-177
 
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-254,PFAFimport-250,PFAFimport-176,PFAFimport-218,PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-279
 
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-254,PFAFimport-250,PFAFimport-176,PFAFimport-218,PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-279
}}
+
 
{{Article state
+
|cultivation notes=
|article incomplete=Yes
+
|PFAF cultivation notes=An easily grown and undemanding plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}, it does best in a deep rich soil, preferably neutral or slightly alkaline{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}, doing quite well in sun or light shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants are tolerant of a wide range of soil conditions, but will not survive if the soil becomes waterlogged or is too dry{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. This species is lime tolerant{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants grown on sandy soils tend to produce more leaves and less flowers, whilst those growing on clay take longer to become established but produce better blooms{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. Prefers a rich heavy soil that is well-drained but remains moist in the summer{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
}}
+
{{PFAF import
+
|cultivation=An easily grown and undemanding plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}, it does best in a deep rich soil, preferably neutral or slightly alkaline{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}, doing quite well in sun or light shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants are tolerant of a wide range of soil conditions, but will not survive if the soil becomes waterlogged or is too dry{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. This species is lime tolerant{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants grown on sandy soils tend to produce more leaves and less flowers, whilst those growing on clay take longer to become established but produce better blooms{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. Prefers a rich heavy soil that is well-drained but remains moist in the summer{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
+
 
The species is hardy to about -25°c, but there are many named varieties some of which are hardy to about -50°{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
 
The species is hardy to about -25°c, but there are many named varieties some of which are hardy to about -50°{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
 
Cultivated as a medicinal plant in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}.
 
Cultivated as a medicinal plant in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}.
Line 95: Line 93:
 
Peony species are usually self-fertile, though they will also hybridise with other species if these flower nearby at the same time{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}.
 
Peony species are usually self-fertile, though they will also hybridise with other species if these flower nearby at the same time{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}.
 
Plants take 4 - 5 years to flower from seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. They generally breed true from seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}.
 
Plants take 4 - 5 years to flower from seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. They generally breed true from seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}.
|propagation=Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. When sown fresh, the seed produces a root about 6 weeks after sowing with shoots formed in the spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Stored seed is much slower, it should be sown as soon as possible in a cold frame but may take 18 months or more to germinate{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The roots are very sensitive to disturbance, so many growers allow the seedlings to remain in their pots for 2 growing seasons before potting them up. This allows a better root system to develop that is more resilient to disturbance{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. If following this practice, make sure you sow the seed thinly, and give regular liquid feeds in the growing season to ensure the plants are well fed. We usually prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle, and then grow them on in a cold frame for at least two growing seasons before planting them out when they are in growth in the spring[K].
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. When sown fresh, the seed produces a root about 6 weeks after sowing with shoots formed in the spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Stored seed is much slower, it should be sown as soon as possible in a cold frame but may take 18 months or more to germinate{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The roots are very sensitive to disturbance, so many growers allow the seedlings to remain in their pots for 2 growing seasons before potting them up. This allows a better root system to develop that is more resilient to disturbance{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. If following this practice, make sure you sow the seed thinly, and give regular liquid feeds in the growing season to ensure the plants are well fed. We usually prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle, and then grow them on in a cold frame for at least two growing seasons before planting them out when they are in growth in the spring[K].
 
Division with great care in spring or autumn. Each portion must have a leaf bud. If the lifted root is stood in shade for several hours it becomes less brittle and easier to divide{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Divisions that have several buds will usually flower in the second year, but those that only have one or two buds will take a number of years before they have grown sufficiently to flower{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}.
 
Division with great care in spring or autumn. Each portion must have a leaf bud. If the lifted root is stood in shade for several hours it becomes less brittle and easier to divide{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Divisions that have several buds will usually flower in the second year, but those that only have one or two buds will take a number of years before they have grown sufficiently to flower{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}.
 
|range=E. Asia - Siberia to Mongolia.
 
|range=E. Asia - Siberia to Mongolia.
 
|habitat=Dry open stony slopes, riverbanks and sparse woodland edges{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}. Woods and grasslands at elevations of 400 - 2300 metres in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-266}}.
 
|habitat=Dry open stony slopes, riverbanks and sparse woodland edges{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}. Woods and grasslands at elevations of 400 - 2300 metres in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-266}}.
|hazards=None known
+
 
|uses=None known
+
|edible use notes=
|edible=Root - cooked and eaten in a broth{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
+
|PFAF edible use notes=Root - cooked and eaten in a broth{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Stems - cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}.
 
Stems - cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}.
 
Seed - powdered and mixed with tea{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Seed - powdered and mixed with tea{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
|medicinal=The root of Chinese peony has been used for over 1,500 years in Chinese medicine. It is known most widely as one of the herbs used to make 'Four Things Soup', a woman's tonic, and it is also a remedy for gynaecological problems and for cramp, pain and giddiness{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. When the whole root is harvested it is called Chi Shao Yao, if the bark is removed during preparation then it is called Bai Shao Yao{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}.
+
|medicinal use notes=
 +
|PFAF medicinal use notes=The root of Chinese peony has been used for over 1,500 years in Chinese medicine. It is known most widely as one of the herbs used to make 'Four Things Soup', a woman's tonic, and it is also a remedy for gynaecological problems and for cramp, pain and giddiness{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. When the whole root is harvested it is called Chi Shao Yao, if the bark is removed during preparation then it is called Bai Shao Yao{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}.
 
The root is alterative, analgesic, anodyne, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-176}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-279}}. The most important ingredient medicinally in the root is paeoniflorin, which has been shown to have a strong antispasmodic effect on mammalian intestines, it also reduces blood pressure, reduces body temperature caused by fever and protects against stress ulcers{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. It is taken internally in the treatment of menstrual disorders, injuries, high blood pressure, pre-menstrual tension and liver disorders{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. It should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner and should not be prescribed for pregnant women{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. The roots are harvested in the autumn from cultivated plants that are 4 - 5 years old and are boiled before being sun-dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. The roots of wild plants are harvested in the spring or (preferably) in the autumn and are sun-dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
The root is alterative, analgesic, anodyne, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-176}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-279}}. The most important ingredient medicinally in the root is paeoniflorin, which has been shown to have a strong antispasmodic effect on mammalian intestines, it also reduces blood pressure, reduces body temperature caused by fever and protects against stress ulcers{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. It is taken internally in the treatment of menstrual disorders, injuries, high blood pressure, pre-menstrual tension and liver disorders{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. It should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner and should not be prescribed for pregnant women{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. The roots are harvested in the autumn from cultivated plants that are 4 - 5 years old and are boiled before being sun-dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-250}}. The roots of wild plants are harvested in the spring or (preferably) in the autumn and are sun-dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
The root is an ingredient of 'Four Things Soup', the most widely used woman's tonic in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. The other species used are Rehmannia glutinosa, Ligusticum wallichii and Angelica sinensis{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
The root is an ingredient of 'Four Things Soup', the most widely used woman's tonic in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. The other species used are Rehmannia glutinosa, Ligusticum wallichii and Angelica sinensis{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
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|id=ISBN 92 9061 120 0
 
|id=ISBN 92 9061 120 0
 
|date=1998-00-00}}
 
|date=1998-00-00}}
 +
}}{{Article state
 +
|article cleanup=Yes
 +
|article incomplete=Yes
 +
|article citations=No
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 14:07, 4 May 2013

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Root - cooked and eaten in a broth[1][2][3][4].

Stems - cooked[5].

Seed - powdered and mixed with tea[2][4].

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Paeonia lactiflora.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The root of Chinese peony has been used for over 1,500 years in Chinese medicine. It is known most widely as one of the herbs used to make 'Four Things Soup', a woman's tonic, and it is also a remedy for gynaecological problems and for cramp, pain and giddiness[6]. When the whole root is harvested it is called Chi Shao Yao, if the bark is removed during preparation then it is called Bai Shao Yao[7].

The root is alterative, analgesic, anodyne, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine and tonic[8][9][10][11]. The most important ingredient medicinally in the root is paeoniflorin, which has been shown to have a strong antispasmodic effect on mammalian intestines, it also reduces blood pressure, reduces body temperature caused by fever and protects against stress ulcers[7]. It is taken internally in the treatment of menstrual disorders, injuries, high blood pressure, pre-menstrual tension and liver disorders[10]. It should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner and should not be prescribed for pregnant women[10]. The roots are harvested in the autumn from cultivated plants that are 4 - 5 years old and are boiled before being sun-dried for later use[10][7]. The roots of wild plants are harvested in the spring or (preferably) in the autumn and are sun-dried for later use[10]. The root is an ingredient of 'Four Things Soup', the most widely used woman's tonic in China[6]. The other species used are Rehmannia glutinosa, Ligusticum wallichii and Angelica sinensis[6].

A tea made from the dried crushed petals of various peony species has been used as a cough remedy, and as a treatment for haemorrhoids and varicose veins[7].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[7]. When sown fresh, the seed produces a root about 6 weeks after sowing with shoots formed in the spring[12]. Stored seed is much slower, it should be sown as soon as possible in a cold frame but may take 18 months or more to germinate[12]. The roots are very sensitive to disturbance, so many growers allow the seedlings to remain in their pots for 2 growing seasons before potting them up. This allows a better root system to develop that is more resilient to disturbance[7]. If following this practice, make sure you sow the seed thinly, and give regular liquid feeds in the growing season to ensure the plants are well fed. We usually prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle, and then grow them on in a cold frame for at least two growing seasons before planting them out when they are in growth in the spring[K]. Division with great care in spring or autumn. Each portion must have a leaf bud. If the lifted root is stood in shade for several hours it becomes less brittle and easier to divide[12]. Divisions that have several buds will usually flower in the second year, but those that only have one or two buds will take a number of years before they have grown sufficiently to flower[7].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Paeonia lactiflora. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown and undemanding plant[7], it does best in a deep rich soil, preferably neutral or slightly alkaline[13], doing quite well in sun or light shade[13][12]. Plants are tolerant of a wide range of soil conditions, but will not survive if the soil becomes waterlogged or is too dry[7]. This species is lime tolerant[12]. Plants grown on sandy soils tend to produce more leaves and less flowers, whilst those growing on clay take longer to become established but produce better blooms[7]. Prefers a rich heavy soil that is well-drained but remains moist in the summer[14].

The species is hardy to about -25°c, but there are many named varieties some of which are hardy to about -50°[14]. Cultivated as a medicinal plant in China[15]. A very ornamental[13] and long-lived plant, surviving in gardens for 50 years or more[12]. Many hundreds of named varieties have been developed for their ornamental value[7]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits[16]. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes[17]. Strongly resents root disturbance, taking some time to recover if it is transplanted[13]. Plants should be planted with their crowns no more than 3cm below soil level. If planted deeper they do not flower so well[14]. Peony species are usually self-fertile, though they will also hybridise with other species if these flower nearby at the same time[7].

Plants take 4 - 5 years to flower from seed[12]. They generally breed true from seed[13].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Paeonia lactiflora. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Paeonia lactiflora.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Paeonia lactiflora
Genus
Paeonia
Family
Paeoniaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    7. ? 7.007.017.027.037.047.057.067.077.087.097.107.117.12 Page. M. The Gardener's Guide to Growing Peonies. David & Charles. Newton Abbot. ISBN 0 7153 0531 X (1997-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.512.612.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
    15. ? Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    16. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)
    17. ? Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (1977-00-00)
    18. ? Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
    19. ? [Flora of China] (1994-00-00)

    "image:Lactiflora1b.UME.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.