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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|primary image=Opuntia_ficus-indica%2CMorocco.jpg
 
|common=Prickly Pear
 
|common=Prickly Pear
 
|binomial=Opuntia ficus-indica
 
|binomial=Opuntia ficus-indica
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|poornutrition=No
 
|poornutrition=No
 
|life cycle=perennial
 
|life cycle=perennial
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
+
|deciduous or evergreen=evergreen
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
||mature measurement unit=meters
 
|mature height=5
 
|mature height=5
 
|mature width=5
 
|mature width=5
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|material uses references=PFAFimport-64,PFAFimport-92
 
|material uses references=PFAFimport-64,PFAFimport-92
  
|cultivation=Requires a sandy or very well-drained soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. Prefers a pH in the range 6 to 7.5{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants must be kept fairly dry in the winter but they like a reasonable supply of water in the growing season. A position at the base of a south-facing wall or somewhere that can be protected from winter rain is best for this plant. Requires warmth and plenty of sun{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. Plants tolerate considerable neglect{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}.
+
|cultivation notes=
 +
|PFAF cultivation notes=Requires a sandy or very well-drained soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. Prefers a pH in the range 6 to 7.5{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Plants must be kept fairly dry in the winter but they like a reasonable supply of water in the growing season. A position at the base of a south-facing wall or somewhere that can be protected from winter rain is best for this plant. Requires warmth and plenty of sun{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. Plants tolerate considerable neglect{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}.
 
Cultivated in many warm temperate and sub tropical areas for its edible fruits{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}} and its use as a stock-proof barrier, it is not very cold-tolerant and is unlikely to survive the winter outdoors in Britain. There are some named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}, one at least of which is free from spines and irritant hairs.
 
Cultivated in many warm temperate and sub tropical areas for its edible fruits{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}} and its use as a stock-proof barrier, it is not very cold-tolerant and is unlikely to survive the winter outdoors in Britain. There are some named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}, one at least of which is free from spines and irritant hairs.
|propagation=Seed - sow early spring in a very well-drained compost in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give the plants some protection from winter wet. Make sure you have some reserve plants in case those outdoors do not overwinter.
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - sow early spring in a very well-drained compost in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give the plants some protection from winter wet. Make sure you have some reserve plants in case those outdoors do not overwinter.
 
Cuttings of leaf pads at any time in the growing season. Remove a pad from the plant and then leave it in a dry sunny place for a couple of days to ensure that the base is thoroughly dry and has begun to callous. Pot up into a sandy compost. Very easy, rooting quickly.
 
Cuttings of leaf pads at any time in the growing season. Remove a pad from the plant and then leave it in a dry sunny place for a couple of days to ensure that the base is thoroughly dry and has begun to callous. Pot up into a sandy compost. Very easy, rooting quickly.
 
|range=Original habitat is obscure.
 
|range=Original habitat is obscure.
 
|habitat=Naturalized in the Mediterranean where it grows in dry arid and rocky places{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}.
 
|habitat=Naturalized in the Mediterranean where it grows in dry arid and rocky places{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}.
|hazards=The plant has numerous minutely barbed glochids (hairs) that are easily dislodged when the plant is touched and they then become stuck to the skin where they are difficult to see and remove. They can cause considerable discomfort{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|toxicity notes=
|uses=A gum is obtained from the stem. It is used as a masticatory or mixed with oil to make candles{{Ref | PFAFimport-64}}. The juice of the boiled stem segments is very sticky. It is added to plaster, whitewash etc to make it adhere better to walls{{Ref | PFAFimport-92}}.
+
|PFAF toxicity notes=The plant has numerous minutely barbed glochids (hairs) that are easily dislodged when the plant is touched and they then become stuck to the skin where they are difficult to see and remove. They can cause considerable discomfort{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|edible=Fruit - raw, cooked or dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}. Sweet and gelatinous{{Ref | PFAFimport-85}}. Very refreshing, they are somewhat like a watermelon in flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruits are up to 10cm long and 9cm wide{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Be careful of the plants irritant hairs, see the notes above on toxicity.
+
|material use notes=
 +
|PFAF material use notes=A gum is obtained from the stem. It is used as a masticatory or mixed with oil to make candles{{Ref | PFAFimport-64}}. The juice of the boiled stem segments is very sticky. It is added to plaster, whitewash etc to make it adhere better to walls{{Ref | PFAFimport-92}}.
 +
|edible use notes=
 +
|PFAF edible use notes=Fruit - raw, cooked or dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-89}}. Sweet and gelatinous{{Ref | PFAFimport-85}}. Very refreshing, they are somewhat like a watermelon in flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruits are up to 10cm long and 9cm wide{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Be careful of the plants irritant hairs, see the notes above on toxicity.
 
Pads - cooked and used like French beans{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Watery and very mucilaginous{{Ref | PFAFimport-85}}.
 
Pads - cooked and used like French beans{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. Watery and very mucilaginous{{Ref | PFAFimport-85}}.
 
Flowers - raw{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}.
 
Flowers - raw{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}.
 
Seed - ground into a meal{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-92}}.
 
Seed - ground into a meal{{Ref | PFAFimport-20}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-92}}.
 
An edible gum is obtained from the stem{{Ref | PFAFimport-64}}.
 
An edible gum is obtained from the stem{{Ref | PFAFimport-64}}.
|medicinal=The flowers and stems are antispasmodic, diuretic and emollient{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}. The split stems have been bound around injured limbs as a first aid measure{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
+
|medicinal use notes=
 +
|PFAF medicinal use notes=The flowers and stems are antispasmodic, diuretic and emollient{{Ref | PFAFimport-7}}. The split stems have been bound around injured limbs as a first aid measure{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
The flowers are astringent and are used to reduce bleeding and treat problems of the gastro-intestinal tract, especially diarrhoea, colitis and irritable bowel syndrome{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. The flowers are also used in the treatment of an enlarged prostate gland{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
The flowers are astringent and are used to reduce bleeding and treat problems of the gastro-intestinal tract, especially diarrhoea, colitis and irritable bowel syndrome{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}. The flowers are also used in the treatment of an enlarged prostate gland{{Ref | PFAFimport-254}}.
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|enabled=Yes
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|id=ISBN 9-780751-303148
 
|id=ISBN 9-780751-303148
 
|date=1996-00-00}}
 
|date=1996-00-00}}
 +
}}{{Article state
 +
|article cleanup=Yes
 +
|article incomplete=Yes
 +
|article citations=No
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 14:04, 4 May 2013

Uses

Toxic parts

The plant has numerous minutely barbed glochids (hairs) that are easily dislodged when the plant is touched and they then become stuck to the skin where they are difficult to see and remove. They can cause considerable discomfort[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw, cooked or dried for later use[2][3][4][5][6][7]. Sweet and gelatinous[8]. Very refreshing, they are somewhat like a watermelon in flavour[9]. The fruits are up to 10cm long and 9cm wide[1]. Be careful of the plants irritant hairs, see the notes above on toxicity.

Pads - cooked and used like French beans[4][9]. Watery and very mucilaginous[8]. Flowers - raw[4]. Seed - ground into a meal[4][10].

An edible gum is obtained from the stem[11].

Flowers

Fruit

Unknown part

Gum

Leaves

Material uses

A gum is obtained from the stem. It is used as a masticatory or mixed with oil to make candles[11]. The juice of the boiled stem segments is very sticky. It is added to plaster, whitewash etc to make it adhere better to walls[10].

Unknown part

Gum

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The flowers and stems are antispasmodic, diuretic and emollient[3]. The split stems have been bound around injured limbs as a first aid measure[12]. The flowers are astringent and are used to reduce bleeding and treat problems of the gastro-intestinal tract, especially diarrhoea, colitis and irritable bowel syndrome[12]. The flowers are also used in the treatment of an enlarged prostate gland[12].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow early spring in a very well-drained compost in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first two winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give the plants some protection from winter wet. Make sure you have some reserve plants in case those outdoors do not overwinter. Cuttings of leaf pads at any time in the growing season. Remove a pad from the plant and then leave it in a dry sunny place for a couple of days to ensure that the base is thoroughly dry and has begun to callous. Pot up into a sandy compost. Very easy, rooting quickly.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Opuntia ficus-indica. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a sandy or very well-drained soil[13][2]. Prefers a pH in the range 6 to 7.5[1]. Plants must be kept fairly dry in the winter but they like a reasonable supply of water in the growing season. A position at the base of a south-facing wall or somewhere that can be protected from winter rain is best for this plant. Requires warmth and plenty of sun[2]. Plants tolerate considerable neglect[2]. Cultivated in many warm temperate and sub tropical areas for its edible fruits[7][9] and its use as a stock-proof barrier, it is not very cold-tolerant and is unlikely to survive the winter outdoors in Britain. There are some named varieties[9], one at least of which is free from spines and irritant hairs.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Opuntia ficus-indica. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Opuntia ficus-indica.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Opuntia ficus-indica
Genus
Opuntia
Family
Cactaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
9
Heat Zone
?
Water
low
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
5 x 5 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type
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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (1987-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8623-0343-9 (1967-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-00072-2 (1975-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  13. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
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