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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|primary image=Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG
 
|common=Sheep Laurel
 
|common=Sheep Laurel
 
|binomial=Kalmia angustifolia
 
|binomial=Kalmia angustifolia
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|life cycle=perennial
 
|life cycle=perennial
 
|herbaceous or woody=woody
 
|herbaceous or woody=woody
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
+
|deciduous or evergreen=evergreen
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
||mature measurement unit=meters
 
|mature height=1.5
 
|mature height=1.5
 
|mature width=1.5
 
|mature width=1.5
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|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-21,PFAFimport-61
 
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-4,PFAFimport-257,PFAFimport-21,PFAFimport-61
  
|cultivation=Requires an acid humus-rich soil, succeeding in part shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}} or in full sun in cooler areas. Prefers almost full sun{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Dislikes dry soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}}, requiring cool, permanently moist conditions at the roots{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}. Succeeds in open woodland or along the woodland edge{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|cultivation notes=
 +
|PFAF cultivation notes=Requires an acid humus-rich soil, succeeding in part shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}} or in full sun in cooler areas. Prefers almost full sun{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Dislikes dry soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}}, requiring cool, permanently moist conditions at the roots{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}. Succeeds in open woodland or along the woodland edge{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants are very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-184}}.
 
Plants are very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-184}}.
 
A very ornamental and variable plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}, there are many named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The flowers are produced at the end of the previous years growth{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Plants spread slowly by means of suckers{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}.
 
A very ornamental and variable plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}, there are many named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The flowers are produced at the end of the previous years growth{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Plants spread slowly by means of suckers{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}.
 
Pruning is not normally necessary, though if older plants become bare at the centre they can be cut back hard and will regrow from the base{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Pruning is not normally necessary, though if older plants become bare at the centre they can be cut back hard and will regrow from the base{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|propagation=Seed - surface sow in late winter in a cool greenhouse in light shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Prick out the young seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. The seedlings are rather sensitive to damping off, so water them with care, keep them well-ventilated and perhaps apply a fungicide such as garlic as a preventative. Grow the young plants on in light shade and overwinter them in the greenhouse for their first winter{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. The seed is dust-like and remains viable for many years{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}.
+
|propagation notes=
 +
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - surface sow in late winter in a cool greenhouse in light shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. Prick out the young seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. The seedlings are rather sensitive to damping off, so water them with care, keep them well-ventilated and perhaps apply a fungicide such as garlic as a preventative. Grow the young plants on in light shade and overwinter them in the greenhouse for their first winter{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. The seed is dust-like and remains viable for many years{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}.
 
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Very poor results unless the cuttings are taken from very young plants{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Very poor results unless the cuttings are taken from very young plants{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}.
 
Layering in August/September. Takes 18 months{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. The plants can also be dug up and replanted about 30cm deeper in the soil to cover up some of the branches. The plant can then be dug up about 12 months later when the branches will have formed roots and can be separated to make new plants{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Layering in August/September. Takes 18 months{{Ref | PFAFimport-78}}. The plants can also be dug up and replanted about 30cm deeper in the soil to cover up some of the branches. The plant can then be dug up about 12 months later when the branches will have formed roots and can be separated to make new plants{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
|range=Eastern N. America - Newfoundland to Hudson Bay, south to Georgia and Michigan. Nat in Britain.
 
|range=Eastern N. America - Newfoundland to Hudson Bay, south to Georgia and Michigan. Nat in Britain.
 
|habitat=Acidic bogs and swamps{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
|habitat=Acidic bogs and swamps{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|hazards=The foliage is poisonous to animals{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-65}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-76}}. The whole plant is highly toxic{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}.
+
|toxicity notes=
 +
|PFAF toxicity notes=The foliage is poisonous to animals{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-65}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-76}}. The whole plant is highly toxic{{Ref | PFAFimport-222}}.
  
|edible=None known
+
|medicinal use notes=
|medicinal=Sheep laurel is a very poisonous narcotic plant the leaves of which were at one time used by some native North American Indian tribes in order to commit suicide{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.
+
|PFAF medicinal use notes=Sheep laurel is a very poisonous narcotic plant the leaves of which were at one time used by some native North American Indian tribes in order to commit suicide{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.
 
The leaves are usually used externally as a poultice and wash in herbal medicine and are a good remedy for many skin diseases, sprains and inflammation{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. They can also be applied as a poultice to the head to treat headaches{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. The singed, crushed leaves can be used as a snuff in the treatment of colds{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
The leaves are usually used externally as a poultice and wash in herbal medicine and are a good remedy for many skin diseases, sprains and inflammation{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. They can also be applied as a poultice to the head to treat headaches{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. The singed, crushed leaves can be used as a snuff in the treatment of colds{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}.
 
Used internally, the leaves are analgesic, astringent and sedative and have a splendid effect in the treatment of active haemorrhages, headaches, diarrhoea and flux{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. This species is said to be the best for medicinal use in the genus{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. The plant should be used with great caution however, see the notes above on toxicity.
 
Used internally, the leaves are analgesic, astringent and sedative and have a splendid effect in the treatment of active haemorrhages, headaches, diarrhoea and flux{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-21}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-257}}. This species is said to be the best for medicinal use in the genus{{Ref | PFAFimport-4}}. The plant should be used with great caution however, see the notes above on toxicity.
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|id=ISBN 0-88192-453-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-88192-453-9
 
|date=1998-00-00}}
 
|date=1998-00-00}}
 +
}}{{Article state
 +
|article cleanup=Yes
 +
|article incomplete=Yes
 +
|article citations=No
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 13:35, 4 May 2013

Uses

Toxic parts

The foliage is poisonous to animals[1][2][3]. The whole plant is highly toxic[4].

Edible uses

There are no edible uses listed for Kalmia angustifolia.

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Kalmia angustifolia.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Sheep laurel is a very poisonous narcotic plant the leaves of which were at one time used by some native North American Indian tribes in order to commit suicide[5]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.

The leaves are usually used externally as a poultice and wash in herbal medicine and are a good remedy for many skin diseases, sprains and inflammation[5][6]. They can also be applied as a poultice to the head to treat headaches[6]. The singed, crushed leaves can be used as a snuff in the treatment of colds[6].

Used internally, the leaves are analgesic, astringent and sedative and have a splendid effect in the treatment of active haemorrhages, headaches, diarrhoea and flux[5][1][7][6]. This species is said to be the best for medicinal use in the genus[5]. The plant should be used with great caution however, see the notes above on toxicity.

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - surface sow in late winter in a cool greenhouse in light shade[8][9]. Prick out the young seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. The seedlings are rather sensitive to damping off, so water them with care, keep them well-ventilated and perhaps apply a fungicide such as garlic as a preventative. Grow the young plants on in light shade and overwinter them in the greenhouse for their first winter[8]. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. The seed is dust-like and remains viable for many years[9].

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Very poor results unless the cuttings are taken from very young plants[10][8].

Layering in August/September. Takes 18 months[8]. The plants can also be dug up and replanted about 30cm deeper in the soil to cover up some of the branches. The plant can then be dug up about 12 months later when the branches will have formed roots and can be separated to make new plants[11].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Kalmia angustifolia. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires an acid humus-rich soil, succeeding in part shade[12] or in full sun in cooler areas. Prefers almost full sun[10]. Dislikes dry soils[12], requiring cool, permanently moist conditions at the roots[1]. Succeeds in open woodland or along the woodland edge[11].

Plants are very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c[13]. A very ornamental and variable plant[10], there are many named varieties[11]. The flowers are produced at the end of the previous years growth[10]. Plants spread slowly by means of suckers[10].

Pruning is not normally necessary, though if older plants become bare at the centre they can be cut back hard and will regrow from the base[11].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Kalmia angustifolia. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Kalmia angustifolia.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Kalmia angustifolia
Genus
Kalmia
Family
Ericaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    2. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
    4. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
    13. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
    14. ? Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)

    "image:Kalmia angustifolia 4500.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.