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Problems, pests & diseases
Associations & Interactions
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Polycultures & Guilds
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Succeeds in most soils, including dry ones, preferring a rich moist soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeding in sun or shade, it produces more flowers in a sunny position though these flowers can be shorter-lived in very sunny positions. Succeeds in short grass if the soil is moist. Prefers a pH between 6 and 7. This species is hardy to about -20°c. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Individual flowers only live for one day. The flowers are sweetly scented. Plants form a tight clump that spreads slowly[K]. The roots are cylindrical. Plants take a year or two to become established after being moved. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. The plants are very susceptible to slug and snail damage, the young growth in spring is especially at risk.
Seed - sow in the middle of spring in a greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid and good. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow the plants on for their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring[K]. Division in spring or after flowering in late summer or autumn. Division is very quick and easy, succeeding at almost any time of the year[K]. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
E. Asia - Japan, Korea.
Large quantities of the leaves are said to be hallucinogenic. Blanching the leaves removes this hallucinatory component. (This report does not make clear what it means by blanching, it could be excluding light from the growing shoots or immersing in boiling water[K].)
Leaves and young shoots - cooked. They must be consumed when very young or else they become fibrous[K]. Flowers and flower buds - raw or cooked. The flowers are crisp and juicy with a pleasant sweetness and no unpleasant after-taste[K]. They can be dried and used as a thickener in soups etc. The flower buds contain about 43mg vitamin C per 100g, 983 IU vitamin A and 3.1% protein. Root - raw or cooked.
The tough dried foliage is plaited into cord and used for making footwear. Plants form a slowly spreading clump and are suitable for ground cover when spaced about 45cm apart each way. The dead leaves should be left on the ground in the winter to ensure effective cover.
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- Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
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- Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
- Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)