(Migrating article to Creative Commons BY-SA, isolating PFAF NC content for manual migration. See the page: Migrating PFAF Licensing)
(Cleaned up PFAF content.)
 
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{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|override summary=Append
 +
|append to article summary=Provides an adequate ground cover, spreading via creeping rhizomes to form patches of cover.
 +
|article summary=
 
|primary image=Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg
 
|primary image=Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg
|common=Mountain Cornflower
+
|common=Mountain Cornflower, Perennial Cornflower, Bachelor's Button, Montane Knapweed, Mountain Bluet
|binomial=Centaurea montana
+
 
|family=Compositae
 
|family=Compositae
 
|genus=Centaurea
 
|genus=Centaurea
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
+
|taxonomic rank=species
|part used=Unknown part
+
|binomial=Centaurea montana
|part used for=Antitussive
+
|infraspecific epithet=
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|cultivar of groups=
|part used=Unknown part
+
|cultivar epithet=
|part used for=Astringent
+
|cultivar group epithet=
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|life cycle=perennial
|part used=Unknown part
+
|deciduous or evergreen=
|part used for=Diuretic
+
|flower type=hermaphrodite
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|fertility=self fertile
|part used=Unknown part
+
|mature height=0.45
|part used for=Emmenagogue
+
|mature width=1
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used for=Ophthalmic
+
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used for=Purgative
+
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used for=Tonic
+
}}
+
|functions={{Plant functions as |
+
 
+
function=Ground cover}}
+
 
|sun=full sun
 
|sun=full sun
 
|shade=no shade
 
|shade=no shade
Line 36: Line 25:
 
|drought=tolerant
 
|drought=tolerant
 
|soil water retention=well drained
 
|soil water retention=well drained
|soil texture=sandy,loamy,clay
+
|soil texture=sandy, loamy, clay
|soil ph=acid,neutral,alkaline,very alkaline
+
|soil ph=acid, neutral, alkaline, very alkaline
|poornutrition=No
+
|wind=False
 +
|maritime=False
 +
|pollution=False
 +
|poornutrition=False
 
|ecosystem niche=Soil surface
 
|ecosystem niche=Soil surface
|life cycle=perennial
+
|edible part and use=
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
|material part and use=
|mature height=0.45
+
|medicinal use notes=Mountain cornflower is seldom used in modern herbalism, though it does still have a reputation in parts of Europe as a wash for tired eyes{{Ref | PFAFimport-268}}. It is considered to be most effective on blue eyes, great plantain (Plantago majus) being used for brown eyes{{Ref | PFAFimport-268}}.
|mature width=1
+
|flower type=hermaphrodite
+
|fertility=self fertile
+
|pollinators=Bees,Flies,Lepidoptera,Self
+
|botanical references=PFAFimport-200
+
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-268,PFAFimport-9
+
|material uses references=PFAFimport-188,PFAFimport-208
+
  
|cultivation notes=
+
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
|PFAF cultivation notes=Succeeds in ordinary garden soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers a moist well-drained fertile soil and a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Tolerates dry, low fertility and alkaline soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|part used=Flowers
 +
|preparation=Dried
 +
|part used for=Antitussive, Astringent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Ophthalmic, Purgative, Tonic
 +
|part use details=The dried flowers are antitussive, astringent, weakly diuretic, emmenagogue, ophthalmic, very mildly purgative and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}. An infusion can be used as a treatment for dropsy, constipation, as a mouthwash for bleeding gums and as an eye bath for conjunctivitis{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
 +
}}
 +
|toxic parts=
 +
|functions={{Plant functions as
 +
|function=Ground cover
 +
|details=Can be used as a ground cover plant in a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-188}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-208}}.
 +
}}
 +
|shelter=
 +
|forage={{Plant provides forage for
 +
|forage=Bees
 +
|details=A good bee plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-108}}.
 +
}}
 +
|grow from=seed, cutting
 +
|germination details=Sow March in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer.
 +
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in August in a greenhouse, overwintered under cover, and planted out in spring.
 +
|seed requires stratification=False
 +
|seed dormancy depth=
 +
|seed requires scarification=False
 +
|seed requires smokification=False
 +
|cutting details=Division in autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring. This should be done at least once every three years in order to maintain the plants vigour.
 +
 
 +
Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 5 - 10cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.
 +
|rootstocks=
 +
|cultivation=Succeeds in ordinary garden soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers a moist well-drained fertile soil and a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Tolerates dry, low fertility and alkaline soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants are hardy to at least -20°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
 
Plants are hardy to at least -20°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
 
A very ornamental plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}, there are some named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}. The plants have creeping rhizomes and form spreading patches{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
 
A very ornamental plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}, there are some named varieties{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}. The plants have creeping rhizomes and form spreading patches{{Ref | PFAFimport-187}}.
A good bee plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-108}}.
+
 
 
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer{{Ref | PFAFimport-233}}.
 
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer{{Ref | PFAFimport-233}}.
 +
|crops=
 +
|interactions=
 +
|subspecies=
 +
|cultivar groups=
 +
|botanical references=PFAFimport-200
 +
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-268,PFAFimport-9
 +
|material uses references=PFAFimport-188,PFAFimport-208
 +
|cultivation notes=
 
|propagation notes=
 
|propagation notes=
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - sow March in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer.
 
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in August in a greenhouse, overwintered under cover, and planted out in spring.
 
Division in autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring. This should be done at least once every three years in order to maintain the plants vigour.
 
Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 5 - 10cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.
 
 
|range=Europe.
 
|range=Europe.
 
|habitat=Mountain woodland margins and meadows{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
 
|habitat=Mountain woodland margins and meadows{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
|material use notes=
 
|PFAF material use notes=Can be used as a ground cover plant in a sunny position{{Ref | PFAFimport-188}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-208}}.
 
|medicinal use notes=
 
|PFAF medicinal use notes=Mountain cornflower is seldom used in modern herbalism, though it does still have a reputation in parts of Europe as a wash for tired eyes{{Ref | PFAFimport-268}}. It is considered to be most effective on blue eyes, great plantain (Plantago majus) being used for brown eyes{{Ref | PFAFimport-268}}.
 
The dried flowers are antitussive, astringent, weakly diuretic, emmenagogue, ophthalmic, very mildly purgative and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}. An infusion can be used as a treatment for dropsy, constipation, as a mouthwash for bleeding gums and as an eye bath for conjunctivitis{{Ref | PFAFimport-9}}.
 
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|title irregular=No
 
|title irregular=No
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
{{References
 
{{References
|refs={{Reference|name=PFAFimport-1
+
|refs={{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-1
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1951-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-9
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-9
 
|author=Launert. E.
 
|author=Launert. E.
 
|title=Edible and Medicinal Plants.
 
|title=Edible and Medicinal Plants.
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-37216-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-600-37216-2
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-108
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-108
 
|author=International Bee Research Association.
 
|author=International Bee Research Association.
 
|title=Garden Plants Valuable to Bees.
 
|title=Garden Plants Valuable to Bees.
 
|publisher=International Bee Research Association.
 
|publisher=International Bee Research Association.
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-187
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-187
 
|author=Phillips. R. & Rix. M.
 
|author=Phillips. R. & Rix. M.
 
|title=Perennials Volumes 1 and 2.
 
|title=Perennials Volumes 1 and 2.
 
|publisher=Pan Books
 
|publisher=Pan Books
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-30936-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-330-30936-9
|date=1991-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-188
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-188
 
|author=Brickell. C.
 
|author=Brickell. C.
 
|title=The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
 
|title=The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
 
|id=ISBN 0-86318-386-7
 
|id=ISBN 0-86318-386-7
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-200
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-200
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-208
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-208
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|title=Plants for Ground Cover
 
|title=Plants for Ground Cover
 
|publisher=J. M. Dent & Sons
 
|publisher=J. M. Dent & Sons
 
|id=ISBN 0-460-12609-1
 
|id=ISBN 0-460-12609-1
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-233
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-233
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|title=Perennial Garden Plants
 
|title=Perennial Garden Plants
 
|publisher=J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
 
|publisher=J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
 
|id=ISBN 0 460 86048 8
 
|id=ISBN 0 460 86048 8
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-268
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-268
 
|author=Stuart. M. (Editor)
 
|author=Stuart. M. (Editor)
 
|title=The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism
 
|title=The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism
 
|publisher=Orbis Publishing. London.
 
|publisher=Orbis Publishing. London.
 
|id=ISBN 0-85613-067-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-85613-067-2
|date=1979-00-00}}
+
|date=32202/01/01
}}{{Article state
+
}}
|article cleanup=Yes
+
}}
|article incomplete=Yes
+
{{Article state
|article citations=No
+
|article cleanup=False
 +
|article incomplete=False
 +
|article citations=False
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 09:31, 12 November 2013

Uses

Edible uses

There are no edible uses listed for Centaurea montana.

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Centaurea montana.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Mountain cornflower is seldom used in modern herbalism, though it does still have a reputation in parts of Europe as a wash for tired eyes[2]. It is considered to be most effective on blue eyes, great plantain (Plantago majus) being used for brown eyes[2].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover

Can be used as a ground cover plant in a sunny position[3][4].

Forage

Bees

A good bee plant[5].

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed

Sow March in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in August in a greenhouse, overwintered under cover, and planted out in spring.

Rooted cuttings

Division in autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring. This should be done at least once every three years in order to maintain the plants vigour.

Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 5 - 10cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.


Cultivation

Succeeds in ordinary garden soil[6][7]. Prefers a moist well-drained fertile soil and a sunny position[7]. Tolerates dry, low fertility and alkaline soils[7]. Plants are hardy to at least -20°c[8]. A very ornamental plant[6], there are some named varieties[8]. The plants have creeping rhizomes and form spreading patches[8].

Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[9].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Centaurea montana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Centaurea montana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Centaurea montana
Genus
Centaurea
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
0.45 x 1
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (32202/01/01)
  5. ? International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (32202/01/01)
  9. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (32202/01/01)



"image:Centaurea montana Sturm25.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.