(Migrating article to Creative Commons BY-SA, isolating PFAF NC content for manual migration. See the page: Migrating PFAF Licensing)
(Improved article.)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Plant
 
{{Plant
 +
|append to article summary=
 +
|article summary=
 
|primary image=Brassica_juncea_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-168.jpg
 
|primary image=Brassica_juncea_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-168.jpg
|common=Brown Mustard
+
|common=Brown Mustard, Mustard Greens
|binomial=Brassica juncea
+
 
|family=Brassicaceae
 
|family=Brassicaceae
 
|genus=Brassica
 
|genus=Brassica
 +
|taxonomic rank=species
 +
|binomial=Brassica juncea
 +
|infraspecific epithet=
 +
|cultivar of groups=
 +
|cultivar epithet=
 +
|cultivar group epithet=
 +
|life cycle=annual
 +
|herbaceous or woody=
 +
|deciduous or evergreen=
 +
|flower type=hermaphrodite
 +
|fertility=self fertile
 +
|mature height=0.75
 +
|mature width=0.25
 +
|sun=full sun
 +
|shade=light shade
 +
|hardiness zone=7
 +
|water=moderate
 +
|drought=intolerant
 +
|soil water retention=well drained
 +
|soil texture=sandy, loamy, clay
 +
|soil ph=acid, neutral, alkaline
 +
|wind=False
 +
|maritime=False
 +
|pollution=False
 +
|poornutrition=False
 +
|ecosystem niche=Herbaceous
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Seed
|part used for=Condiment}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Condiment
 +
|part use details=The seed is used as a mustard flavouring{{Ref | PFAFimport-171}}. It is the source of 'brown mustard'{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}, a prepared mustard that is milder than that produced from other species{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed - an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 - 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild bitter mustard{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Black mustard comes from B. nigra and white mustard from Sinapis alba.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Flowers
 
|part used=Flowers
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Vegetable
 +
|part use details=Flowers and young flowering stems -  raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-52}}. Sweet and succulent{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Leaves
 
|part used=Leaves
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Vegetable, Salad Leaf
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=Leaves - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-22}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-33}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-52}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}. A peppery flavour that can range from mild to hot, this is one of the most highly prized cooked vegetables in the Orient{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. The leaves can also be eaten raw, when finely shredded they make a very acceptable addition to mixed salads{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. The protein extracted from the leaves mixes well with banana pulp and is well adapted as a pie filling{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
|part used for=Oil}}{{Has part with edible use
+
}}{{Has part with edible use
 +
|part used=Seed
 +
|part used for=Oil
 +
|part use details=An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-57}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The seed contains 25 - 30% oil{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Root
 
|part used=Root
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Vegetable
 +
|part use details=The root of some forms of this species is edible{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Seed
 
|part used=Seed
|part used for=Unknown use}}
+
|part used for=Spice, Nut, Sprouts
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
+
|part use details=The seed is also used whole in curries and pickles{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. They are often heated in oil to destroy their pungency and give them a nutty flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
|part used=Unknown part
+
Sprouted seeds can be added to salads.
|part used for=Repellent}}
+
}}
 +
|material part and use=
 +
|medicinal use notes=The seed is used in the treatment of tumours in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}. In Korea, the seeds are used in the treatment of abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism, and stomach disorders{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 +
Ingestion may impart a body odour repellent to mosquitoes{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 +
In Java the plant is used as an antisyphilitic emmenagogue{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 +
Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve headache{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 +
The Chinese eat the leaves in soups for bladder inflammation or haemorrhage{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
|part used for=Anodyne
+
|part used for=anodyne, aperitif, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, stimulant
 +
|part use details=Reported to be anodyne, aperitif, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, and stimulant, Brown Mustard is a folk remedy for arthritis, foot ache, lumbago, and rheumatism{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Seed
 
|part used for=Antibiotic
 
|part used for=Antibiotic
 +
|part use details=Although not usually used medicinally, the seed is a warming stimulant herb with antibiotic effects{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used for=Aperient
 
|part used for=Aperient
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Root
|part used for=Diuretic
+
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used for=Emetic
+
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|part used=Unknown part
+
 
|part used for=Galactogogue
 
|part used for=Galactogogue
 +
|part use details=The root is used as a galactagogue in Africa{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 +
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Seed
|part used for=Rubefacient
+
|preparation=Oil
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
+
|part used for=aperient, tonic, stimulant
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part use details=Mustard oil is used in the treatment of skin eruptions and ulcers{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}. Believed to be aperient and tonic, the volatile oil is used as a counterirritant and stimulant{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
|part used for=Stimulant
+
}}
 +
|toxic parts=
 +
|functions={{Plant functions as
 +
|function=Green manure, Repellant
 +
|details=There is some evidence that if this plant is grown as a green manure it is effective in reducing soil-borne root rots in pea crops{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. This is attributed to chemicals that are given off as the plants decay{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}.
 
}}
 
}}
|functions={{Plant functions as |
+
|shelter=
 
+
|forage=
function=Green manure}}
+
|grow from=seed
|sun=full sun
+
|germination details=Sow in situ from early spring to early autumn in order to obtain a succession of edible leaves. Plants may respond to lengthening days and dry, hot weather by bolting to flower{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}.
|shade=light shade
+
There are about 5,660 - 6,000 per 0.01 kg (1/3 oz){{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
|hardiness zone=7
+
|seed requires stratification=False
|water=moderate
+
|seed dormancy depth=
|drought=intolerant
+
|seed requires scarification=False
|soil water retention=well drained
+
|seed requires smokification=False
|soil texture=sandy,loamy,clay
+
|rootstocks=
|soil ph=very acid,acid,neutral,alkaline,very alkaline
+
|poornutrition=No
+
|life cycle=annual
+
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
|mature height=0.75
+
|mature width=0.25
+
|flower type=hermaphrodite
+
|fertility=self fertile
+
|pollinators=Bees
+
|botanical references=PFAFimport-200
+
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-22,PFAFimport-33,PFAFimport-46,PFAFimport-52,PFAFimport-61,PFAFimport-206,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-133,PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-57,PFAFimport-74,PFAFimport-171,PFAFimport-238
+
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-269
+
|material uses references=PFAFimport-206
+
 
+
|cultivation notes=
+
 
|PFAF cultivation notes=Succeeds in full sun in most well-drained moisture-retentive fertile soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-16}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. Prefers a heavy soil and some shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-16}}. Dislikes very hot weather{{Ref | PFAFimport-33}}. Plants tolerate high rainfall and, although fairly deep rooted, are not very drought resistant{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3.
 
|PFAF cultivation notes=Succeeds in full sun in most well-drained moisture-retentive fertile soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-16}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. Prefers a heavy soil and some shade{{Ref | PFAFimport-16}}. Dislikes very hot weather{{Ref | PFAFimport-33}}. Plants tolerate high rainfall and, although fairly deep rooted, are not very drought resistant{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3.
 
Brown mustards is widely cultivated for its edible seed which is used to make the condiment 'brown mustard' and is also sprouted as the mustard of mustard and cress{{Ref | PFAFimport-50}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. It has only 70% of the pungency of black mustard (B. nigra) but can be harvested mechanically so is more viable commercially{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
Brown mustards is widely cultivated for its edible seed which is used to make the condiment 'brown mustard' and is also sprouted as the mustard of mustard and cress{{Ref | PFAFimport-50}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. It has only 70% of the pungency of black mustard (B. nigra) but can be harvested mechanically so is more viable commercially{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
Line 85: Line 115:
 
Plants have a rooting depth of between 90 - 120 cm{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
Plants have a rooting depth of between 90 - 120 cm{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
A good bee plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
A good bee plant{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 +
|crops=
 +
|interactions=
 +
|subspecies=
 +
|cultivar groups=
 +
|botanical references=PFAFimport-200
 +
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-22,PFAFimport-33,PFAFimport-46,PFAFimport-52,PFAFimport-61,PFAFimport-206,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-133,PFAFimport-1,PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-17,PFAFimport-57,PFAFimport-74,PFAFimport-171,PFAFimport-238
 +
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-238,PFAFimport-269
 +
|material uses references=PFAFimport-206
 +
|cultivation notes=
 
|propagation notes=
 
|propagation notes=
|PFAF propagation notes=Seed - sow in situ from early spring to early autumn in order to obtain a succession of edible leaves. Most varieties of Oriental vegetables belonging to this species are best sown from late June to early September otherwise they may bolt{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}.
 
There are about 5,660 - 6,000 per 0.01 kg (1/3 oz){{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
 
|range=N. Europe to C. Asia. Rarely naturalized in Britain{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 
|range=N. Europe to C. Asia. Rarely naturalized in Britain{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 
|habitat=Cornfields in Britain{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
 
|habitat=Cornfields in Britain{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}.
|material use notes=
 
|PFAF material use notes=There is some evidence that if this plant is grown as a green manure it is effective in reducing soil-borne root rots in pea crops{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. This is attributed to chemicals that are given off as the plants decay{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}.
 
|edible use notes=
 
|PFAF edible use notes=Leaves - raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-22}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-33}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-46}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-52}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-61}}. A peppery flavour that can range from mild to hot, this is one of the most highly prized cooked vegetables in the Orient{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. The leaves can also be eaten raw, when finely shredded they make a very acceptable addition to mixed salads{{Ref | PFAFimport-206}}. The protein extracted from the leaves mixes well with banana pulp and is well adapted as a pie filling{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Flowers and young flowering stems -  raw or cooked{{Ref | PFAFimport-52}}. Sweet and succulent{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}}.
 
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-17}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-57}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The seed contains 25 - 30% oil{{Ref | PFAFimport-74}}.
 
The seed is used as a mustard flavouring{{Ref | PFAFimport-171}}. It is the source of 'brown mustard'{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}, a prepared mustard that is milder than that produced from other species{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed - an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 - 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild bitter mustard{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Black mustard comes from B. nigra and white mustard from Sinapis alba.
 
The seed is also used whole in curries and pickles{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. They are often heated in oil to destroy their pungency and give them a nutty flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
The root of some forms of this species is edible{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
Sprouted seeds can be added to salads.
 
|medicinal use notes=
 
|PFAF medicinal use notes=Although not usually used medicinally, the seed is a warming stimulant herb with antibiotic effects{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
Reported to be anodyne, aperitif, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, and stimulant, Brown Mustard is a folk remedy for arthritis, foot ache, lumbago, and rheumatism{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
The seed is used in the treatment of tumours in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}. In Korea, the seeds are used in the treatment of abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism, and stomach disorders{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
The root is used as a galactagogue in Africa{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
Ingestion may impart a body odour repellent to mosquitoes{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
Mustard oil is used in the treatment of skin eruptions and ulcers{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}. Believed to be aperient and tonic, the volatile oil is used as a counterirritant and stimulant{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
In Java the plant is used as an antisyphilitic emmenagogue{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve headache{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
The Chinese eat the leaves in soups for bladder, inflammation or haemorrhage{{Ref | PFAFimport-269}}.
 
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|title irregular=No
 
|title irregular=No
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
{{References
 
{{References
|refs={{Reference|name=PFAFimport-1
+
|refs={{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-1
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1951-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-2
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-2
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
|date=1972-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-16
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-16
 
|author=Simons.
 
|author=Simons.
 
|title=New Vegetable Growers Handbook.
 
|title=New Vegetable Growers Handbook.
 
|publisher=Penguin
 
|publisher=Penguin
 
|id=ISBN 0-14-046-050-0
 
|id=ISBN 0-14-046-050-0
|date=1977-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-17
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-17
 
|author=Clapham, Tootin and Warburg.
 
|author=Clapham, Tootin and Warburg.
 
|title=Flora of the British Isles.
 
|title=Flora of the British Isles.
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1962-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-22
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-22
 
|author=Sholto-Douglas. J.
 
|author=Sholto-Douglas. J.
 
|title=Alternative Foods.
 
|title=Alternative Foods.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-33
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-33
 
|author=Organ. J.
 
|author=Organ. J.
 
|title=Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table.
 
|title=Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table.
 
|publisher=Faber
 
|publisher=Faber
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1960-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-46
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-46
 
|author=Uphof. J. C. Th.
 
|author=Uphof. J. C. Th.
 
|title=Dictionary of Economic Plants.
 
|title=Dictionary of Economic Plants.
 
|publisher=Weinheim
 
|publisher=Weinheim
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1959-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-50
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-50
 
|author=?
 
|author=?
 
|title=Flora Europaea
 
|title=Flora Europaea
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
 
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1964-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-52
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-52
 
|author=Larkcom. J.
 
|author=Larkcom. J.
 
|title=Salads all the Year Round.
 
|title=Salads all the Year Round.
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
 
|publisher=Hamlyn
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1980-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-57
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-57
 
|author=Schery. R. W.
 
|author=Schery. R. W.
 
|title=Plants for Man.
 
|title=Plants for Man.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-61
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-61
 
|author=Usher. G.
 
|author=Usher. G.
 
|title=A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
 
|title=A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
 
|publisher=Constable
 
|publisher=Constable
 
|id=ISBN 0094579202
 
|id=ISBN 0094579202
|date=1974-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-74
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-74
 
|author=Komarov. V. L.
 
|author=Komarov. V. L.
 
|title=Flora of the USSR.
 
|title=Flora of the USSR.
 
|publisher=Israel Program for Scientific Translation
 
|publisher=Israel Program for Scientific Translation
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1968-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-133
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-133
 
|author=Rice. G. (Editor)
 
|author=Rice. G. (Editor)
 
|title=Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
 
|title=Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
 
|publisher=Thompson and Morgan.
 
|publisher=Thompson and Morgan.
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1987-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-171
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-171
 
|author=Hill. A. F.
 
|author=Hill. A. F.
 
|title=Economic Botany.
 
|title=Economic Botany.
 
|publisher=The Maple Press
 
|publisher=The Maple Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1952-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-183
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-183
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-200
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-200
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-206
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-206
 
|author=Larkcom J.
 
|author=Larkcom J.
 
|title=Oriental Vegetables
 
|title=Oriental Vegetables
 
|publisher=John Murray
 
|publisher=John Murray
 
|id=ISBN 0-7195-4781-4
 
|id=ISBN 0-7195-4781-4
|date=1991-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-238
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-238
 
|author=Bown. D.
 
|author=Bown. D.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
 
|title=Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley, London.
 
|publisher=Dorling Kindersley, London.
 
|id=ISBN 0-7513-020-31
 
|id=ISBN 0-7513-020-31
|date=1995-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-269
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-269
 
|author=Duke. J.
 
|author=Duke. J.
 
|title=Handbook of Energy Crops
 
|title=Handbook of Energy Crops
 
|publisher=-
 
|publisher=-
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
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Latest revision as of 09:34, 5 March 2014

Uses

Edible uses

Flowers

Root

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Brassica juncea.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The seed is used in the treatment of tumours in China[16]. In Korea, the seeds are used in the treatment of abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism, and stomach disorders[16]. Ingestion may impart a body odour repellent to mosquitoes[16]. In Java the plant is used as an antisyphilitic emmenagogue[16]. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve headache[16]. The Chinese eat the leaves in soups for bladder inflammation or haemorrhage[16].

Seed

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Herbaceous

Ecological Functions

Green manure, Repellant

There is some evidence that if this plant is grown as a green manure it is effective in reducing soil-borne root rots in pea crops[10]. This is attributed to chemicals that are given off as the plants decay[10].

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed

Sow in situ from early spring to early autumn in order to obtain a succession of edible leaves. Plants may respond to lengthening days and dry, hot weather by bolting to flower[10]. There are about 5,660 - 6,000 per 0.01 kg (1/3 oz)[16].


Cultivation

Succeeds in full sun in most well-drained moisture-retentive fertile soils[17][18][10]. Prefers a heavy soil and some shade[17]. Dislikes very hot weather[7]. Plants tolerate high rainfall and, although fairly deep rooted, are not very drought resistant[10]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3.

Brown mustards is widely cultivated for its edible seed which is used to make the condiment 'brown mustard' and is also sprouted as the mustard of mustard and cress[19][18]. It has only 70% of the pungency of black mustard (B. nigra) but can be harvested mechanically so is more viable commercially[3]. This species has also been cultivated in the Orient for many hundreds of years and a wide diversity of forms has been developed with edible leaves, stems, roots and seeds. These forms have been classified by the botanists as follows and separate entries have been made for each of them.

    B. juncea crispifolia. The curled or cutleaf mustards, this group has attractively curled edible leaves.
    B. juncea foliosa. The leaf mustards have quite large smooth-edged edible leaves.
    B. juncea japonica. Rather similar to B. juncea crispifolia and combined with that group by some botanists.
    B. juncea multiceps. The multishoot mustard group.
    B. juncea napiformis. A form with a swollen edible root.
    B. juncea rugosa. Large somewhat cabbage-like edible leaves.
    B. juncea strumata. A form with large edible leaf stalks.
    B. juncea tumida. A form with swollen edible stems.

Plants take from 2 - 5 months from sowing to maturity, depending on the season and the cultivar[10]. They prefer a fairly high stable temperature and are well adapted to short day length[18]. Many are best grown in warmer climates than Britain but there are several cultivars that grow well in this country[10]. Plants have a rooting depth of between 90 - 120 cm[16].

A good bee plant[15].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Brassica juncea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Brassica juncea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Brassica juncea
Genus
Brassica
Family
Brassicaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (32202/01/01)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.7 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn (32202/01/01)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. (32202/01/01)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Sholto-Douglas. J. Alternative Foods. ()
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (32202/01/01)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
    10. ? 10.0010.0110.0210.0310.0410.0510.0610.0710.0810.0910.10 Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 (32202/01/01)
    11. ? 11.011.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (32202/01/01)
    16. ? 16.0016.0116.0216.0316.0416.0516.0616.0716.0816.0916.1016.1116.12 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (32202/01/01)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-050-0 (32202/01/01)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
    19. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)



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