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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Root - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4]. Well-grown roots are sweet and tender, especially when young, and can be grated and used in salads. Beetroots are traditionally boiled until tender then pickled in vinegar and used in salads. The roots can also be cooked and used as a vegetable, they are sweet and delicious when baked[K]. The root contains up to 8% sugar[5]. The root is tasteless when grown on very wet soils and dry when grown on clay soils[4]. Immature roots can be harvested in the summer and early autumn for immediate use, these are usually much more tender than the older roots[K]. Mature roots can be left in the ground all winter and harvested as required, though they might suffer damage in severe winters[K]. Alternatively, they are harvested in late autumn or early winter and will store for up to 6 months in a cool but not dry frost-free place[K]. Leaves - raw or cooked like spinach[6]. A reasonable spinach substitute, though harvesting leaves from growing plants can reduce yields of the roots[K]. Some people dislike the raw leaves since they can leave an unpleasant taste in the mouth[K]. A nutritional analysis is available[7].

Leaves

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Beta vulgaris craca.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Although little used in modern herbalism, beet has a long history of folk use, especially in the treatment of tumours[8].

The root of white-rooted forms contain betaine which promotes the regeneration of liver cells and the metabolism of fat cells[9]. The root of red-rooted forms contains betanin - an anthocyanin similar to those found in red wine - which is partly responsible for red beet's immune-enhancing effect[9]. The root is carminative, haemostatic, stomachic and a tonic for women[7]. The root can be used as part of the diet, or the juice can be extracted and used as a health-promoting drink[9]. At least one litre of the juice from red-rooted forms must be taken each day in order to stimulate the immune system[9]. The juice is prescribed by herbalists as part of a cancer-treatment regime[9]. A decoction prepared from the seed has been used as a remedy for tumours of the intestines. The seed, boiled in water, is said to cure genital tumours[8]. The juice or other parts of the plant is said to help in the treatment of tumours, leukaemia and other forms of cancer such as cancer of the breast, oesophagus, glands, head, intestines, leg, lip, lung, prostate, rectum, spleen, stomach, and uterus[8]. Some figure that betacyanin and anthocyanin are important in the exchange of substances of cancer cells; others note two main components of the amines, choline and its oxidation product betaine, whose absence produces tumours in mice[8]. The juice has been applied to ulcers[8]. A decoction is used as a purgative by those who suffer from haemorrhoids in South Africa[8]. Leaves and roots used as an emmenagogue[8]. Plant effective in the treatment of feline ascariasis[8].

In the old days, beet juice was recommended as a remedy for anaemia and yellow jaundice, and, put into the nostrils to purge the head, clear ringing ears, and alleviate toothache[8]. Beet juice in vinegar was said to rid the scalp of dandruff as scurf, and was recommended to prevent falling hair[8].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - pre-soaking for 12 hours in warm water prior to sowing encourages mare rapid and even germination[10]. For the earliest crop, ready to harvest in late spring, sow the seed in situ in late February or early March, giving it some protection such as a cloche. The first outdoor sowings can be made in March in situ to provide a crop from early summer onwards. For both of these sowings it is important to choose varieties that are resistant to bolting in case there is a cold spell in the spring. Sowings for the main crop can be made in April to early June to provide roots for autumn, winter and early spring use. Late sowings of fast maturing varieties can be made in June and early July in order to provide fresh young roots in the autumn.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Beta vulgaris craca. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in sun or light shade in moist soils but prefers a rich well-drained light neutral to alkaline soil[11][12]. Beets grow well in a variety of soils, growing best in a deep, friable well-drained soil abundant with organic matter, but doing poorly on clay. They prefer an open position and a light well-drained soil[13]. The optimum pH is 6.0 - 6.8, but neutral and alkaline soils are tolerated in some areas. Some salinity may be tolerated after the seedling stage. Beets are notable for their tolerance to manganese toxicity[8]. Beet is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 23 to 315cm, an average annual temperature range of 5.0 to 26.6°C and a pH of 4.2 to 8.2[8]. Plants are tolerant of saline soils and respond positively if salt is added to non-saline soils at a rate of about 30g per square metre[10].

Beetroot plants are generally hardy in Britain and can be left outdoors in the soil in most winters, though prolonged cold weather or severe winters can damage the roots. If the plants are exposed to prolonged temperatures below -10°c they will quickly run to seed[14]. This also applies to the young plants of most beetroot varieties if they are sown in early spring - a short period where temperatures fall below zero can fool the plant into believing that there has been a winter and it will then try to flower and produce seed. There are, however, come varieties, such as 'Bolthardy', that are more resistant to bolting and so more suited to these early sowings[14][10]. The beetroot is widely cultivated, especially in temperate zones, for its edible root. There are two basic forms, those with rounded roots and those with elongated roots with many named varieties of each form. The roots can be available all year round from successional sowings. A fast-growing plant, some cultivars can produce a root ready for harvesting within 7 weeks from sowing the seed[10]. Most beetroot seed is actually a cluster of several seeds, though monogerm varieties have been produced that only have one seed - these monogerm varieties are less likely to require thinning once they have germinated[10].

A good companion for dwarf beans, onions and kohl rabi[15][16]. Its growth is inhibited by runner beans, charlock and field mustard[15][16].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Beta vulgaris craca. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Beta vulgaris craca.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Beta vulgaris craca
Genus
Beta
Family
Chenopodiaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-050-0 (1977-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press ISBN 0-89815-041-8 ()
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
  5. ? 5.05.1 Woodcock. and Coutts. Lilies - Their Culture and Management. Country Life (1935-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  8. ? 8.008.018.028.038.048.058.068.078.088.098.108.118.12 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.5 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Vegetables Macmillan Reference Books, London. ISBN 0 333 62640 0 (1995-00-00)
  11. ? Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (1960-00-00)
  12. ? Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (1878-00-00)
  13. ? Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn (1980-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)