(Adjusting functions to use template-per-function rather than CSV list.)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Plant
 
{{Plant
|common=Akebia
+
|override summary=Append
 +
|append to article summary=It is an edible vine with a spicy, chocolatey aroma used in basket making. 
 +
|article summary=
 +
|primary image=Akebia quinata.jpg
 +
|common=Chocolate Vine,Akebia
 
|binomial=Akebia quinata
 
|binomial=Akebia quinata
|family=Lardizabalaceae
 
 
|genus=Akebia
 
|genus=Akebia
 +
|family=Lardizabalaceae
 +
|common habit description=Vine
 +
|common use description=Fruit
 +
|botanical description=It grows to 10 metres or more in height and has compound leaves with five leaflets. The inflorescences are clustered in racemes and are chocolate-scented, with three or four sepals. The fruits are sausage-shaped pods which contain edible pulp{{Ref|Wiki}}.
 +
|life cycle=perennial
 +
|herbaceous or woody=woody
 +
|deciduous or evergreen=evergreen
 +
|flower type=monoecious
 +
|flower colour=violet
 +
|fertility=self sterile
 +
|growth rate=vigorous
 +
|mature measurement unit=metres
 +
|mature height=10
 +
|sun=full sun
 +
|shade=permanent shade
 +
|hardiness zone=5
 +
|water=moderate
 +
|drought=intolerant
 +
|soil water retention=well drained
 +
|soil texture=sandy, loamy, clay
 +
|soil ph=acid, neutral, alkaline
 +
|wind=No
 +
|maritime=No
 +
|pollution=No
 +
|poornutrition=No
 +
|ecosystem niche=Soil surface, Climber
 +
|edible use notes=The fruit is 5 - 10cm long and up to 4m wide{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-266}}.
 +
 +
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
 
|edible part and use={{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Fruit
 
|part used=Fruit
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Fresh
 +
|part use details=The fruit is traditionally eaten fresh{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-105}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}.  The gelatinous placentation are littered with seeds but have a sweet flavor, so they used to be enjoyed by children playing out in the countryside in Japan{{Ref|wiki}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}.  The pulp is reported to have a sweet watermelon-like flavour and the seeds can be eaten or spat out{{Ref|Crawford}}. Lemon juice is sometimes added to the fruit to enhance the flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Leaves
 
|part used=Leaves
|part used for=Unknown use}}{{Has part with edible use
+
|part used for=Tea
 +
|part use details=The leaves are used as a tea substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-105}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 +
}}{{Has part with edible use
 
|part used=Unknown part
 
|part used=Unknown part
|part used for=Tea}}
+
|part used for=Tea
 +
}}
 +
|material use notes=
 +
 
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
 
|material part and use={{Has part with material use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stem
|part used for=Basketry}}
+
|part used for=Basketry
 +
|part use details=The peeled stems are very pliable and can be used in basket making{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}.
 +
}}
 +
|medicinal use notes=In the Chinese pharmacopoeia it is believed to be therapeutic as a diuretic, antiphlogistic, galactagogue and analgesic. The principal use of the herb in China is as a traditional remedy for insufficient lactation in nursing mothers. The medicinal part of the plant is the woody stem which is sliced in transverse sections and prepared as a decoction.
 +
 
 +
The stems are anodyne, antifungal, antiphlogistic, bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, galactogogue, resolvent, stimulant, stomachic and vulnerary{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Taken internally, it controls bacterial and fungal infections and is used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lack of menstruation, to improve lactation etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 +
The fruit is antirheumatic, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge, stomachic and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}. It is a popular remedy for cancer{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 +
 
 +
The plant was ranked 13th in a survey of 250 potential antifertility plants in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
 
|medicinal part and use={{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stem
 
|part used for=Anodyne
 
|part used for=Anodyne
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stem
 
|part used for=Antiphlogistic
 
|part used for=Antiphlogistic
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stem
 
|part used for=Bitter
 
|part used for=Bitter
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
Line 27: Line 74:
 
|part used for=Cancer
 
|part used for=Cancer
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stem
 
|part used for=Contraceptive
 
|part used for=Contraceptive
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Fruit
 
|part used for=Depurative
 
|part used for=Depurative
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Fruit
 
|part used for=Diaphoretic
 
|part used for=Diaphoretic
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stem
 
|part used for=Diuretic
 
|part used for=Diuretic
 +
|part use details=The stem contains approximately 30% potassium salts thus giving the diuretic action{{Ref|Reid}}
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stems
 
|part used for=Emmenagogue
 
|part used for=Emmenagogue
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Root
 
|part used for=Febrifuge
 
|part used for=Febrifuge
 +
|part use details=The root is febrifuge{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stems
 
|part used for=Galactogogue
 
|part used for=Galactogogue
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stems
 
|part used for=Laxative
 
|part used for=Laxative
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
|part used=Unknown part
+
|part used=Stems
 
|part used for=Resolvent
 
|part used for=Resolvent
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
 
}}{{Has part with medicinal use
Line 63: Line 112:
 
|part used for=Vulnerary
 
|part used for=Vulnerary
 
}}
 
}}
|functions={{Plant functions as|function=Ground cover}}
+
|toxic parts=
|sun=full sun
+
|functions={{Plant functions as
|shade=permanent shade
+
|function=Ground cover
|hardiness zone=5
+
|details=Plants have sometimes been used as a ground cover{{Ref | PFAFimport-208}}.
|water=moderate
+
}}
|drought=intolerant
+
|shelter=
|soil water retention=well drained
+
|forage=
|soil texture=sandy,loamy,clay
+
|propagation=Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Surface sow in a light position{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}}. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}}. Stored seed should be given 1 month cold stratification{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}} and can be very difficult to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
|soil ph=acid,neutral,alkaline
+
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. The cuttings can be slow to root{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|poornutrition=No
+
Cuttings can also be taken of soft wood in spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}.
|ecosystem niche=Climber,Soil surface
+
Root cuttings, December in a warm greenhouse{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}.
|deciduous or evergreen=deciduous
+
Layering in early spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}. Very easy, the plants usually self-layer and so all you need to do is dig up the new plants and plant them out directly into their permanent positions.
|growth rate=vigorous
+
|seed requires stratification=No
|mature measurement unit=meters
+
|seed dormancy depth=
|mature height=12
+
|seed requires scarification=No
|flower type=monoecious
+
|seed requires smokification=No
|fertility=self sterile
+
|rootstocks=
|botanical references=PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-58,PFAFimport-200
+
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-105,PFAFimport-177,PFAFimport-3,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-200,PFAFimport-266
+
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-174,PFAFimport-178,PFAFimport-218,PFAFimport-238
+
|material uses references=PFAFimport-174,PFAFimport-208
+
 
+
 
|cultivation=Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers a good loamy soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Succeeds in acid or alkaline soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers partial shade but succeeds in full sun{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Succeeds on north facing walls{{Ref | PFAFimport-219}}. Plants are fast growing and can be invasive{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
|cultivation=Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers a good loamy soil{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Succeeds in acid or alkaline soils{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Prefers partial shade but succeeds in full sun{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. Succeeds on north facing walls{{Ref | PFAFimport-219}}. Plants are fast growing and can be invasive{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Dormant plants are hardy to about -20°c but they can be somewhat tender when young{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. This species grows very well in S.W. England{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}.
 
Dormant plants are hardy to about -20°c but they can be somewhat tender when young{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. This species grows very well in S.W. England{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}.
Line 93: Line 137:
 
Plants are shy to fruit, they possibly require some protection in the flowering season, hand pollination is advisable{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Plants are probably self-sterile{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}}, if possible at least 2 plants should be grown, each from a different source.
 
Plants are shy to fruit, they possibly require some protection in the flowering season, hand pollination is advisable{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}. Plants are probably self-sterile{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-182}}, if possible at least 2 plants should be grown, each from a different source.
 
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
 
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
|propagation=Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Surface sow in a light position{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}}. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}}. Stored seed should be given 1 month cold stratification{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-133}} and can be very difficult to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
+
|crop notes=The medicinal part of the plant is the woody stem which is sliced in transverse sections and prepared as a decoction. The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame{{Ref | PFAFimport-11}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}. The cuttings can be slow to root{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}.
+
|crops=
Cuttings can also be taken of soft wood in spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}.
+
|interactions=
Root cuttings, December in a warm greenhouse{{Ref | PFAFimport-113}}.
+
|ungrouped cultivars=
Layering in early spring{{Ref | PFAFimport-1}}. Very easy, the plants usually self-layer and so all you need to do is dig up the new plants and plant them out directly into their permanent positions.
+
|botanical references=PFAFimport-11,PFAFimport-58,PFAFimport-200
 +
|edible uses references=PFAFimport-2,PFAFimport-105,PFAFimport-177,PFAFimport-3,PFAFimport-183,PFAFimport-200,PFAFimport-266
 +
|medicinal uses references=PFAFimport-174,PFAFimport-178,PFAFimport-218,PFAFimport-238
 +
|material uses references=PFAFimport-174,PFAFimport-208
 
|range=E. Asia - China, Japan, Korea.
 
|range=E. Asia - China, Japan, Korea.
 
|habitat=Woods, hedges and thickets in mountainous areas{{Ref | PFAFimport-58}}. Forest margins along streams, scrub on mountain slopes at elevations of 300 - 1500 metres in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-266}}.
 
|habitat=Woods, hedges and thickets in mountainous areas{{Ref | PFAFimport-58}}. Forest margins along streams, scrub on mountain slopes at elevations of 300 - 1500 metres in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-266}}.
|material use notes=The peeled stems are very pliable and can be used in basket making{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}.
 
Plants have sometimes been used as a ground cover, but their method of growth does not really lend themselves to this use{{Ref | PFAFimport-208}}.
 
|edible use notes=Fruit - raw{{Ref | PFAFimport-2}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-105}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}. Sweet but insipid{{Ref | PFAFimport-3}}. The fruit has a delicate flavour and a soft, juicy texture[K]. Lemon juice is sometimes added to the fruit to enhance the flavour{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The bitter skin of the fruit is fried and eaten{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}. The fruit is 5 - 10cm long and up to 4m wide{{Ref | PFAFimport-200}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-266}}.
 
Soft young shoots are used in salads or pickled{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
The leaves are used as a tea substitute{{Ref | PFAFimport-105}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-177}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-183}}.
 
|medicinal use notes=The stems are anodyne, antifungal, antiphlogistic, bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, galactogogue, resolvent, stimulant, stomachic and vulnerary{{Ref | PFAFimport-174}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-178}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. Taken internally, it controls bacterial and fungal infections and is used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lack of menstruation, to improve lactation etc{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}. The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use{{Ref | PFAFimport-238}}.
 
The fruit is antirheumatic, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge, stomachic and tonic{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}. It is a popular remedy for cancer{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 
The root is febrifuge{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 
The plant was ranked 13th in a survey of 250 potential antifertility plants in China{{Ref | PFAFimport-218}}.
 
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|enabled=Yes
 
|title irregular=No
 
|title irregular=No
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
{{References
 
{{References
|refs={{Reference|name=PFAFimport-1
+
|refs={{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-1
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|author=F. Chittendon.
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|title=RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
 
|publisher=Oxford University Press
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1951-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-2
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-2
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|author=Hedrick. U. P.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|title=Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|publisher=Dover Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
 
|id=ISBN 0-486-20459-6
|date=1972-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-3
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-3
 
|author=Simmons. A. E.
 
|author=Simmons. A. E.
 
|title=Growing Unusual Fruit.
 
|title=Growing Unusual Fruit.
 
|publisher=David and Charles
 
|publisher=David and Charles
 
|id=ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
 
|id=ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
|date=1972-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-11
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-11
 
|author=Bean. W.
 
|author=Bean. W.
 
|title=Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
 
|title=Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|publisher=Murray
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1981-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-58
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-58
 
|author=Ohwi. G.
 
|author=Ohwi. G.
 
|title=Flora of Japan. (English translation)
 
|title=Flora of Japan. (English translation)
 
|publisher=Smithsonian Institution
 
|publisher=Smithsonian Institution
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1965-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-105
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-105
 
|author=Tanaka. T.
 
|author=Tanaka. T.
 
|title=Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
 
|title=Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
 
|publisher=Keigaku Publishing
 
|publisher=Keigaku Publishing
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1976-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-113
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-113
 
|author=Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
 
|author=Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
 
|title=The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
 
|title=The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
 
|publisher=Athens Ga. Varsity Press
 
|publisher=Athens Ga. Varsity Press
 
|id=ISBN 0942375009
 
|id=ISBN 0942375009
|date=1987-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-133
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-133
 
|author=Rice. G. (Editor)
 
|author=Rice. G. (Editor)
 
|title=Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
 
|title=Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
 
|publisher=Thompson and Morgan.
 
|publisher=Thompson and Morgan.
|id=
+
|date=32202/01/01
|date=1987-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-174
+
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-174
 
|author=Kariyone. T.
 
|author=Kariyone. T.
 
|title=Atlas of Medicinal Plants.
 
|title=Atlas of Medicinal Plants.
|publisher=
+
}}{{Reference
|id=
+
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-177
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-177
 
|author=Kunkel. G.
 
|author=Kunkel. G.
 
|title=Plants for Human Consumption.
 
|title=Plants for Human Consumption.
 
|publisher=Koeltz Scientific Books
 
|publisher=Koeltz Scientific Books
 
|id=ISBN 3874292169
 
|id=ISBN 3874292169
|date=1984-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-178
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-178
 
|author=Stuart. Rev. G. A.
 
|author=Stuart. Rev. G. A.
 
|title=Chinese Materia Medica.
 
|title=Chinese Materia Medica.
 
|publisher=Taipei. Southern Materials Centre
 
|publisher=Taipei. Southern Materials Centre
|id=
+
}}{{Reference
|date=}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-182
+
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-182
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|title=Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
 
|title=Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|publisher=Murray
 
|id=ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
 
|id=ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-183
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-183
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|author=Facciola. S.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|title=Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|publisher=Kampong Publications
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
 
|id=ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-200
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-200
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|author=Huxley. A.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|title=The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|publisher=MacMillan Press
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
 
|id=ISBN 0-333-47494-5
|date=1992-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-202
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-202
 
|author=Davis. B.
 
|author=Davis. B.
 
|title=Climbers and Wall Shrubs.
 
|title=Climbers and Wall Shrubs.
 
|publisher=Viking.
 
|publisher=Viking.
 
|id=ISBN 0-670-82929-3
 
|id=ISBN 0-670-82929-3
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-208
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-208
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|author=Thomas. G. S.
 
|title=Plants for Ground Cover
 
|title=Plants for Ground Cover
 
|publisher=J. M. Dent & Sons
 
|publisher=J. M. Dent & Sons
 
|id=ISBN 0-460-12609-1
 
|id=ISBN 0-460-12609-1
|date=1990-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-218
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-218
 
|author=Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
 
|author=Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
 
|title=Medicinal Plants of China
 
|title=Medicinal Plants of China
 
|publisher=Reference Publications, Inc.
 
|publisher=Reference Publications, Inc.
 
|id=ISBN 0-917256-20-4
 
|id=ISBN 0-917256-20-4
|date=1985-00-00}}{{Reference|name=PFAFimport-219
+
|date=32202/01/01
 +
}}{{Reference
 
|type=book
 
|type=book
 +
|name=PFAFimport-219
 
|author=Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V.
 
|author=Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V.
 
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Revision as of 11:27, 13 August 2012

Botanical description

It grows to 10 metres or more in height and has compound leaves with five leaflets. The inflorescences are clustered in racemes and are chocolate-scented, with three or four sepals. The fruits are sausage-shaped pods which contain edible pulp[11].

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

The fruit is 5 - 10cm long and up to 4m wide[12][13].

Fruit

Leaves

Tea

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

Stem

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

In the Chinese pharmacopoeia it is believed to be therapeutic as a diuretic, antiphlogistic, galactagogue and analgesic. The principal use of the herb in China is as a traditional remedy for insufficient lactation in nursing mothers. The medicinal part of the plant is the woody stem which is sliced in transverse sections and prepared as a decoction.

The stems are anodyne, antifungal, antiphlogistic, bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, galactogogue, resolvent, stimulant, stomachic and vulnerary[8][14][10][15]. Taken internally, it controls bacterial and fungal infections and is used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lack of menstruation, to improve lactation etc[15]. The fruit is antirheumatic, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge, stomachic and tonic[10]. It is a popular remedy for cancer[10].

The plant was ranked 13th in a survey of 250 potential antifertility plants in China[10].

Root

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface or Climber

Ecological Functions

Ground cover

Plants have sometimes been used as a ground cover[16].

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Surface sow in a light position[17]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c[17]. Stored seed should be given 1 month cold stratification[18][17] and can be very difficult to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[19][18]. The cuttings can be slow to root[12]. Cuttings can also be taken of soft wood in spring[18]. Root cuttings, December in a warm greenhouse[18]. Layering in early spring[20]. Very easy, the plants usually self-layer and so all you need to do is dig up the new plants and plant them out directly into their permanent positions.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Akebia quinata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil[12]. Prefers a good loamy soil[19]. Succeeds in acid or alkaline soils[12]. Prefers partial shade but succeeds in full sun[5][12]. Succeeds on north facing walls[21]. Plants are fast growing and can be invasive[12]. Dormant plants are hardy to about -20°c but they can be somewhat tender when young[12]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. This species grows very well in S.W. England[19]. Plants are evergreen in mild winters[19]. Resentful of root disturbance, either grow the plants in containers prior to planting them out or plant them out whilst very young[21]. Plants are not normally pruned, if they are growing too large they can be cut back by trimming them with shears in early spring[22]. The flowers have a spicy fragrance, reminiscent of vanilla[21]. Plants are shy to fruit, they possibly require some protection in the flowering season, hand pollination is advisable[5][19]. Plants are probably self-sterile[19][23], if possible at least 2 plants should be grown, each from a different source. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[12].

Crops

The medicinal part of the plant is the woody stem which is sliced in transverse sections and prepared as a decoction. The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[15].

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Akebia quinata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Akebia quinata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Akebia quinata
Genus
Akebia
Family
Lardizabalaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    violet
    Flower Type

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    "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Akebia quinata.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (32202/01/01)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (32202/01/01)
    4. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wiki
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (32202/01/01)
    6. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Crawford
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Kariyone. T. Atlas of Medicinal Plants. ()
    9. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Reid
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (32202/01/01)
    11. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Wiki
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.512.612.712.812.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
    13. ? 13.013.1 [Flora of China] (32202/01/01)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (32202/01/01)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. (32202/01/01)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (32202/01/01)
    19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.419.519.6 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
    20. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (32202/01/01)
    22. ? Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (32202/01/01)
    23. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (32202/01/01)
    24. ? Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution (32202/01/01)



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