Botanical description

A large shrub or small tree with spiny branches, glossy green leaves and small, yellow flowers followed by attractive red fruits.

Uses

Edible uses

Seeds

Spice

A pepper substitute, it is widely used in the Orient[1][2][3][4]. The Dried fruits can be used directly in a pepper mill[5]. A light roasting brings out more of the flavour[6]. The seed is an ingredient of the famous Chinese 'five spice' mixture[6]. The fruit is rather small but is produced in clusters which makes harvesting easy and each fruit contains a single seed[7].

Condiment

The seed can be ground into a powder and used as a condiment[4]. It is called timur or timbur in Nepal, Darjeeling and Sikkim and is used widely to make a tingling dip, especially for boiled food like potatoes and yams[8].

Leaves

Herbs

Young leaves are used as a condiment[1][3][4]. They are used for flavouring and in pickles--they have the same aroma as the fruits[5].

Material uses

Wood

Timber, Dental care, Walking sticks

The wood is heavy, hard and close grained. It has been traditionally used for walking sticks[9][3]. Toothbrushes are made from the branches[9][3].

Fruit

Oil

The fruit contains 1.5% essential oil[10].

Water Purification

The fruit is used to purify water[9][3].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Fruit

Odontalgic, Stimulant, Stomachic

The fruits, branches and thorns are considered to be carminative and stomachic[11][12][9][3][10]. They are used as a remedy for toothache[10].

Seeds

Tonic

The seeds and the bark are used as an aromatic tonic in the treatment of fevers, dyspepsia and cholera[10].

Bark

Tonic

The seeds and the bark are used as an aromatic tonic in the treatment of fevers, dyspepsia and cholera[10].

Branch

Odontalgic, Stimulant, Stomachic

The fruits, branches and thorns are considered to be carminative and stomachic[11][12][9][3][10]. They are used as a remedy for toothache[10].

Thorns

Odontalgic, Stimulant, Stomachic

The fruits, branches and thorns are considered to be carminative and stomachic[11][12][9][3][10]. They are used as a remedy for toothache[10].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Lepidoptera

Zanthoxylum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including The Engrailed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seeds require stratification. Semi-ripe and root cuttings work, as do suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions[13].

Seed

Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help[13]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer.

Rooted cuttings

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August [Britain] in a frame[7]. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage[14].


Cultivation

Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade[15][16][17].

This species is closely related to Z. planispinum[17]. Flowers are formed on the old wood[6].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Seeds

Harvest

Pick the fuits when the papery shells begin to split, showing the black seeds inside. Pick a whole head of fruits at a time, stems and all.

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Zanthoxylum armatum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Zanthoxylum armatum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Zanthoxylum armatum
Genus
Zanthoxylum
Family
Rutaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
  • Seeds (Spice)
  • Seeds (Condiment)
  • Leaves (Herbs)
Material uses
  • Wood (Timber Dental care Walking sticks)
  • Fruit (Oil)
  • Fruit (Water Purification)
Medicinal uses
  • Fruit (Odontalgic Stimulant Stomachic)
  • Seeds (Tonic)
  • Bark (Tonic)
  • Branch (Odontalgic Stimulant Stomachic)
  • Thorns (Odontalgic Stimulant Stomachic)
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    4 x 4 metres
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    green
    Flower Type











    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (32202/01/01)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
    3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.10 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (32202/01/01)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Crawford, Martin Creating a Forest Garden Permanent Publications ()
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 (32202/01/01)
    7. ? 7.07.1 www.pfaf.org Plants For a Future (2012/07/26)
    8. ? www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia ()
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (32202/01/01)
    10. ? 10.0010.0110.0210.0310.0410.0510.0610.0710.0810.0910.10 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (32202/01/01)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (32202/01/01)
    14. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (32202/01/01)
    15. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    16. ? Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)