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Uses

Toxic parts

None known

Edible uses

Notes

Edible fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4]. The fruit contains a few small seeds at the centre, it has a sweet flavour with a hint of apple[5][6]. It can be eaten out of hand, used in pies, preserves etc or dried and used like raisins[7]. We have found the fruit to be of variable quality, with some forms having a distinct bitterness in the flavour whilst others are sweet, juicy and delicious[K]. When the fruit is thoroughly cooked in puddings or pies the seed imparts an almond flavour to the food[7]. The fruit is rich in iron and copper[8]. It is about 10mm in diameter[9]. Trees can yield 7 to 15 tonnes per hectare[10].

Fruit

Material uses

This species can be used as a dwarfing rootstock for Malus spp. (the apples) and Pyrus spp. (the pears)[10]. Plants can be grown as an informal hedge[9]. Any trimming is best done after flowering[9]. A fairly wind-tolerant species, it can be used to give protection from the wind as part of a mixed shelterbelt[9]. Wood - hard, strong, close grained. Used for tool handles, small implements etc[11][12].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

A tea made from the root bark (mixed with other unspecified herbs) was used as a tonic in the treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding and also to treat diarrhoea[13][14]. A bath of the bark tea was used on children with worms[13][14]. An infusion of the root was used to prevent miscarriage after an injury[14]. A compound concoction of the inner bark was used as a disinfectant wash[14].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - it is best harvested 'green', when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed[15][16]. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring - takes 18 months[15]. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Amelanchier canadensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade[5][9] but thrives in any soil that is not water-logged, too dry or poor[17], though it is more wet-tolerant than other members of this genus[17]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid soil[18][19]. Trees produce more and better quality fruits better when growing in a sunny position[5]. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe[K]. There is at least one named variety of this species with superior fruits. 'Prince William' is a large multi-stemmed shrub to 3 metres tall and 2 metres across[7][9]. It crops heavily and its good quality fruit is about 12mm in diameter[7]. Considerable confusion has existed between this species and A. arborea, A. laevis and A. lamarckii, see [17] for the most recent (1991) classification. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[9]. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing[5].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Amelanchier canadensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Amelanchier canadensis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Amelanchier canadensis
Genus
Amelanchier
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
6 x 3 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-01-01)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-01-01)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (1978-01-01)
  4. ? 4.04.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-01-01)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-01-01)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-01-01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-01-01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-01-01)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.79.89.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-01-01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
  11. ? 11.011.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-01-01)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-01-01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-01-01)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-01-01)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-01-01)
  16. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-01-01)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-01-01)
  18. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-01-01)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-01-01)