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Uses

Toxic parts

There have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of this species. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Bulb - raw or cooked. Widely used, especially in southern Europe, as a flavouring in a wide range of foods, both raw and cooked[2]. Garlic is a wonderfully nutritious and health giving addition to the diet, but it has a very strong flavour and so is mainly used in very small quantities as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods[3][4][5][6][7]. A nutritional analysis is available[8]. The bulbs can be up to 6cm in diameter[9].

Leaves - raw or cooked. Chopped and used in salads, they are rather milder than the bulbs[200, K]. The Chinese often cultivate garlic especially for the leaves, these can be produced in the middle of winter in mild winters[10]. The flowering stems are used as a flavouring and are sometimes sold in Chinese shops[11].

The sprouted seed is added to salads[11].

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

The juice from the bulb is used as an insect repellent[12][5]. It has a very strong smell and some people would prefer to be bitten[K]. The juice can also be applied to any stings in order to ease the pain[12][5]. 3 - 4 tablespoons of chopped garlic and 2 tablespoons of grated soap can be infused in 1 litre of boiling water, allowed to cool and then used as an insecticide[13].

An excellent glue can be made from the juice[12], when this is spread on glass it enables a person to cut clean holes in the glass[12], The juice is also used as a glue in mending glass and china[14]. An extract of the plant can be used as a fungicide[15]. It is used in the treatment of blight and mould or fungal diseases of tomatoes and potatoes[13]. If a few cloves of garlic are spread amongst stored fruit, they will act to delay the fruit from rotting[12].

The growing plant is said to repel insects, rabbits and moles[5][16].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit[8]. The plant produces inhibitory effects on gram-negative germs of the typhoid-paratyphoid-enteritis group, indeed it possesses outstanding germicidal properties[17] and can keep amoebic dysentery at bay[2]. It is also said to have anticancer activity[8]. It has also been shown that garlic aids detoxification of chronic lead poisoning[2]. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy[18]. Recent research has also indicated that garlic reduces glucose metabolism in diabetics, slows the development of arteriosclerosis and lowers the risk of further heart attacks in myocardial infarct patients[19][20]. Externally, the expressed juice is an excellent antiseptic for treating wounds[2].

The fresh bulb is much more effective medicinally than stored bulbs, extended storage greatly reduces the anti-bacterial action[2].

The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stings, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator[21][4][5][22][14][23].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Plant out the cloves in late autumn for an early summer crop[7][9]. They can also be planted in late winter to early spring though yields may not be so good. Plant the cloves with their noses just below the soil surface[9]. If the bulbs are left in the ground all year, they will often produce tender young leaves in the winter[K].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Allium sativum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils but prefers a sunny position in a moist light well-drained soil[24][5][25][26]. Dislikes very acid soils[10]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3. The bulb is liable to rot if grown in a wet soil[6][27].

Hardy to at least -10°c[10]. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply[24]. Garlic has a very long history of use as a food and a medicine[2]. It was given to the Egyptian labourers when building the pyramids because it was believed to confer strength and protect from disease, it was also widely used by the Romans[2]. It is widely cultivated in most parts of the world for its edible bulb, which is used mainly as a flavouring in foods. There are a number of named varieties[9]. Bulb formation occurs in response to increasing daylength and temperature[9]. It is also influenced by the temperature at which the cloves were stored prior to planting. Cool storage at temperatures between 0 and 10°c will hasten subsequent bulb formation, storage at above 25°c will delay or prevent bulb formation[9][10]. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes[15][16][28]. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other[13].

Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[29].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Allium sativum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Allium sativum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Allium sativum
Genus
Allium
Family
Alliaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    ?
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.8 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.8 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press ISBN 0-89815-041-8 ()
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (1960-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 (1991-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.1 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    24. ? 24.024.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    25. ? Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-050-0 (1977-00-00)
    26. ? Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (1878-00-00)
    27. ? Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn (1980-00-00)
    28. ? Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (1977-00-00)
    29. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)

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    "image:Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Allium sativum"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyAlliaceae +
    Belongs to genusAllium +
    Has binomial nameAllium sativum +
    Has common nameGarlic +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFlowers +, Leaves +, Root + and Seed +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeBees + and Insects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone8 +
    Has imageAllium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useAdhesive +, Fungicide + and Repellent +
    Has mature height0.6 +
    Has mature width0.15 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnthelmintic +, Antiasthmatic +, Anticholesterolemic +, Antiseptic +, Antispasmodic +, Cancer +, Cholagogue +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Febrifuge +, Stimulant +, Stings +, Stomachic +, Tonic + and Vasodilator +
    Has primary imageAllium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg +
    Has search nameallium sativum + and garlic +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameAllium sativum +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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