Botanical description

Akebia species are deciduous or semi-evergreen woody vines. Vines will grow up supports if available or along the ground. Akebia trifoliata has compound leaves consisting of three leaflets which are ovate to elliptic or ovate with a truncated wedge shaped base. Flowering lasts for 30 to 60 days from March to May (East Asia). Akebia plants are monoecious with flowers functionally unisexual. The flowers are usually produced on 1 year old shoots. Flowers are strongly protogynous, self-incompatible, and require cross-pollination.[2]

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit pulp contains 63.5% water. Pulp sugars include fructose, glucose and sucrose. Flesh acidity is low with the principle organic acid being lactic acid. Akebia species are rich in vitamin C (108 to 930 mg/100 g). Of minerals the concentration of potassium (K) (3.21 to 4.96 g/100 g) is highest followed by magnesium (Mg) (1.00 to 1.51 g/100 g) and calcium (0.47 to 0.49 g/100 g). In general, K, Mg, zinc, iron, and manganese contents in Akebia species are higher than other major fruits such as apple, pear, orange, and so on. The fruits are a rich source of amino acids.[2]

The seeds of Akebia contain a large amount of fatty acids, mainly including oleic acid (47.63%), palmitic acid (20.14%), and linoleic acid (27.05%). [2]

Fruit

Raw as a Fruit

Fruit rind

Cooked as a Vegetable

Leaves, Young Leaves

Dried as a Tea

Material uses

The stems of Akebia species are excellent basketry material[1].

Stem

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Akebia species have been used for centuries in the traditional medicinal practices of China and Japan. The dried stems of A.trifoliata are known as mutong in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia[2] and mokutsu in Kampo, the traditional herbal medicine of Japan[10].

The stems are analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, blood tonic, cardiotonic, diuretic, emmenagogue and galactogogue[11][12]. Taken internally, it controls gram-positive bacterial and fungal infections and is used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lack of menstruation, to improve lactation etc[12][13]. Other reported ethnobotanical uses include the treatment of amenorrhea, poor circulation, dysuria, edema[14], gonorrhea, jaundice[10] rheumatoid arthritis[2] and as a nervine[14]. They are also reported to have anticancer properties[2].

The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[13].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Climber

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Layering in early spring[15]. The plants often self-layer and can be dug up and transplanted[2].

Seed can be difficult to germinate and cuttings can be slow to root[16].

Seed

A traditional practice to enhance germination is to soak and rub the seedcoat with either a 10% tea solution or with plant ashes[2].

Freshly gathered seed can be sown directly in to cold frames. Surface sow in a light position[17] or to a depth of 2 - 3 cm[2]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c[17].

For stored seeds cold stratification (5 °C) for 14 days[2] to 1 month[18][17] is recommended. Stratified seeds can be planted in to prepared seed beds or containers[2].

When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. When seedlings are around 30 cm tall they can be transplanted into the field[2]. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Rooted cuttings

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[19][18]. The cuttings can be slow to root[16]. Cuttings can also be taken of soft wood in spring[18]. Root cuttings, December in a warm greenhouse[18].

Twigs greater than 0.5 cm in diameter with well developed buds have proven most successful[2]. For the propagation of cuttings, shade of 60% of full sunlight is required[2].


Cultivation

Requires a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil[19][16]. Succeeds in acid or alkaline soils[16]. Prefers partial shade but succeeds in full sun[4][16]. Grows well on a north facing wall[20].

Dormant plants are hardy to about -20°c but they can be somewhat tender when young[16]. Another report says that this species is not as hardy as A. quinata, only tolerating temperatures down to -10°c. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun.

Resentful of root disturbance, either grow plants in containers prior to planting them out or plant them out whilst very young[20].

Plants are semi-evergreen[1] or evergreen in mild winters[19]. The vines grow well on deciduous trees[21]. Plants are not normally pruned, if they are growing too large they can be cut back by trimming them with shears in early spring[22] or during winter dormancy [2]. Keep 7 to 15 buds to serve as replacements for fruiting canes[2].

In certain regions it is reported that plants are shy to fruit and possibly require some protection in the flowering season, hand pollination is advisable[4][19]. Plants are self-sterile, at least 2 plants should be grown, each from a different source[1].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[16].

Crops

The fruits are sometimes sold in local markets in Japan[5] and China[2].

Akebia plants begin to flower and set fruit in the second year. While fruit set in the wild is considered low heavy fruiting has been observed in managed orchards (30 tonnes/hectare in the first year of fruiting and 60 tonnes/hectare 3 to 4 years after planting).[2] Fruits ripen over 40 to 50 days from late September to early November (northern hemisphere) depending on the latitude[2]. A. trifoliata has the largest fruit of all Akebia species ranging from 25 to 300 grams each[2].

Fruit

Harvest

Optimal harvest time is approximately one week before the fruit naturally splits open - when there is a visible gray line along the ventral suture[2]. When ripe the fruit skin splits open exposing the sweet flesh of the fruit which will likely attract insects and birds[2].



Stem

Harvest

The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[13]. Dried stems are used in traditional Chinese[1][2] and Japanese[10] medicine.

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Akebia trifoliata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Akebia trifoliata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Akebia trifoliata
Genus
Akebia
Family
Lardizabalaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
partial sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems [1][8]
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
Native Environment
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life [1][2]
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
pink
Flower Type

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"image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Akebia trifoliata fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.7 Crawford, Martin Creating a Forest Garden: Working with nature to grow edible crops. Green Books ISBN 978-1-900322-62-1 ()
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.122.132.142.152.162.172.182.192.202.212.222.232.242.252.262.272.282.29 Li Li et al. [Akebia: A Potential New Fruit Crop in China] American Society for Horticultural Science (2013/03/14)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (32202/01/01)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 [Akebia] Wikipedia (2013/03/14)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Rister, Robert Japanese Herbal Medicine: The healing art of Kampo Avery ISBN 0-89529-836-8 (1999/03/01)
  11. ? 11.011.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Dr. James Duke [Akebia trifoliata: Ethnobotanical uses] Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases (2013/03/14)
  15. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.516.616.716.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. (32202/01/01)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (32202/01/01)
  21. ? Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0-900629-78-9 (32202/01/01)
  22. ? Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (32202/01/01)
  23. ? Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution (32202/01/01)



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Facts about "Akebia trifoliata"RDF feed
Article is incompleteNo +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupNo +
Belongs to familyLardizabalaceae +
Belongs to genusAkebia +
Can be grown from cutting typeSoft wood +, Semi-ripe + and Root +
Has binomial nameAkebia trifoliata +
Has common nameAkebia +, Three leaf Akebia +, Akebi + and Bayuezha +
Has cropFruit + and Stem +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +, Fruit rind +, Leaves + and Young Leaves +
Has edible useFruit +, Vegetable + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile +, Insects + and Wind +
Has flowers of colourpink +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageAkebia trifoliata fruit.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partStem +
Has material useBasketry +
Has mature height5 - 12 +
Has medicinal partStems +
Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Antibacterial +, Antifungal +, Antiinflammatory +, Antitumor +, Blood tonic +, Cardiotonic +, Diuretic +, Emmenagogue +, Galactogogue + and Nervine +
Has primary imageAkebia trifoliata fruit.jpg +
Has search nameakebia trifoliata +, akebia +, three leaf akebia +, akebi + and bayuezha +
Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
Has seed requiring stratificationYes +
Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained + and Moist +
Has sun preferencePartial sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameAkebia trifoliata +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheClimber +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is grown fromSeed +, Cutting + and Layering +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Native to environmentForest edge +
Native to geographical rangeEast Asia +, Japan +, China + and Korea +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates air pollutionNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMetres +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Akebia trifoliata +, Akebia trifoliata +, Akebia trifoliata +, Akebia trifoliata +, Akebia trifoliata +, Akebia trifoliata + and Akebia trifoliata +