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Uses

Toxic parts

The seeds, containing an unnamed alkaloid, are used to kill rabid dogs in Brazil[1].

Edible uses

Notes

A low-quality gum obtained from the plant is used to prepare sweets[2].

Unknown part

Gum

Material uses

An essential oil called Cassie is distilled from the flowers[3][1]. Cassie absolute is employed in preparation of violet bouquets and is extensively used in European perfumery[1]. Cassie pomades are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh and the Punjab. A deliciously scented essential oil, it has a fragrance of violets[4]. A mature plant 10 years old can yield 9 kg of flowers each year[4]. In a suitable climate, the trees begin to flower from their third year. The perfume is extracted from the flowers in form of concrete or pomade. Macerated flowers are placed in melted purified natural fat and allowed to stand for several hours. They are then replaced by fresh flowers and the process repeated until the fat is saturated with perfume. The fat is then melted, strained and cooled. This constitutes the pomade. Odour is that of violets but more intense. Absolute is prepared by mixing pomade with alcohol (2 - 3 kg to about 4 litres) and allowed to stand for 3 - 4 weeks at about -5°C. The alcohol is then separated and distilled over. The extract obtained is an olive-green liquid with strong odour of cassie flowers[1]. Mature trees can yield about 1 kilo of flowers per year[1].

The bark and the fruit are a source of tannin and used in making dyes and inks[5]. The seedpods contain about 23% tannin[6]. The bark, in combination with iron ores and salts, is used as a black dyestuff[1]. A gummy substance obtained from the young pods is used to mend pottery[5][1]. A mucilage can be manufactured from the gummy sap[3]. A gum exuding from trunk is considered to be superior to gum arabic in arts[1]. The woody branches are used in India as tooth brushes[1]. In suitable climates the plant is grown as a hedge[7]. The trees have also been used for erosion control in sandy soils[1][2].

Wood - heavy, hard, durable in the soil, close-grained. Used for fencing posts, agricultural implements, pegs, woodenware etc[7][5][1].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark is astringent and demulcent[6]. Along with the leaves and roots it is used for medicinal purposes[1]. Colombians bathe in the bark decoction as a treatment for typhoid[1].

The gummy roots have been chewed as a treatment for sore throat[1]. A decoction of the gum from the trunk has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea[1]. An infusion of the flowers has been used as a stomachic. It is also used in the treatment of dyspepsia and neuroses[1]. The flowers are added to ointment, which is rubbed on the forehead to treat headaches[1]. The powdered dried leaves have been applied externally as a treatment for wounds[1]. The green pods have been decocted and used in the treatment of dysentery and inflammations of the skin and raucous membranes[1]. An infusion of the pod has been used in the treatment of sore throats, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, conjunctivitis, and uterorrhagia[1].

The juice of the bark is used in Nepal to treat swellings[2].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse[8]. Stored seed should be scarified, pre-soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then sown in a warm greenhouse in March. The seed germinates in 3 - 4 weeks at 25°c[9]. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and consider giving them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in individual pots in a frame[10]. Overwinter in a greenhouse for the first winter and plant out in their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Fair percentage[10].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Acacia farnesiana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a light sandy loam and a very sunny position sheltered from strong winds[8][11][12]. Plants can grow well in pure sand[1]. Most species in this genus become chlorotic on limey soils[13]. Established plants are very drought tolerant[5][4]. The species and its cultivars are reported to exhibit tolerance to drought, high pH, heat, low pH, salt, sand, slope, and Savannah[1]. Plants tolerate a pH range from 5.0 to 8.0[1].

Whilst this species is not very tolerant of cold, being damaged by even a few degrees of frost, the variety A. farnesiana cavenia seems to be more resistant to both drought and frost[1]. Both A. farnesiana and its var. cavenia are extensively cultivated for the essential oil in their flowers in and around Cannes, southern France, which is the centre for production of the perfume[229, 269. A good bee plant[5][14].

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[1].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Acacia farnesiana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Acacia farnesiana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Acacia farnesiana
Genus
Acacia
Family
Leguminosae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
9 x meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.101.111.121.131.141.151.161.171.181.191.201.211.221.231.241.251.26 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.5 Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-527-6 (2002-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.6 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  9. ? Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. (1987-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  11. ? Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  12. ? Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (1987-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  14. ? Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)

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